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Statue of Amun Bakenkhonsu's High Priest

Statue of Amun Bakenkhonsu's High Priest


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History of Algebra*

The history of algebra itself is broken into several sub-categories, and has been expanded upon by several hundred of the world greatest mathematicians. Some of the sub-categories include the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, abstract linear spaces, as well as quadratic, cubic and quartic equations.

Not only can Algebra be divided into sub-categories as subjects, but the groups that studied, or developed them can also categorize them. Egyptian Algebra, Babylonian Algebra, Greek Geometric Algebra, Diophantine Algebra, Hindu Algebra, Arabic Algebra, European Algebra since 1500, and modern Algebra are the most popular categories. All the different theories within Algebra each have been worked millions of times, checked and rechecked for their validity


Statue of Amun Bakenkhonsu's High Priest - History

Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst

Oberteil einer Sitzfigur König Ramses II. mit Krummstab und Wedel

Upper half of a seated figure of King Ramesses II. holding crook and flail

Nubien, Neues Reich, 19. Dynastie, um 1240 v. Chr.

Nubia, New Kingdom 19th Dynasty c. 1240 BC

Ramses II., auch Ramses der Große genannt (* um 1303 v. Chr. † 27. Juni 1213 v. Chr.), war der dritte altägyptische König (Pharao) aus der 19. Dynastie des Neuen Reichs. Er regierte von 1279 bis 1213 v. Chr. und war einer der bedeutendsten Herrscher des Alten Ägypten.

Während seiner Regierungszeit erreichte Ägypten eine wirtschaftliche und kulturelle Blüte, wie sie nach ihm unter keinem Pharao mehr erreicht wurde. Durch sein diplomatisches Handeln gelang es ihm, einen fast fünfzigjährigen Frieden mit seinen Nachbarvölkern, darunter auch mit den Hethitern, zu halten.

Ramesses II (variously transliterated as "Rameses" (/ˈræməsiːz/) or "Ramses" (/ˈræmsiːz/ or /ˈræmziːz/) born c. 1303 BC died July or August 1213 BC reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein.


Female Horus: The Life and Reign of Tausret

This chapter examines the immediate historical context of Tausret's life and situates her within that understanding as well as illuminating the queen's reign by facts gleaned from recent archaeological discoveries. Beginning with Tausret's unique literary-historic role as Egypt's pharaoh at the time of the Trojan War, her apparent appearance in Homer's Odyssey is sketched before the available details of her reign are considered. Both the uniqueness of the queen's reign and the similarities between Tausret and other female rulers are examined. The special position of Tausret as the last ruling descendent of Ramesses the Great is explored in detail, since this was a vital part of the queen's program of legitimation and an important aspect in understanding her monuments.

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Chapter 38 "Peace and Security in My Time" (The Trials and Triumphs of Shebitku)

Like his role model Senakhtenre Tao (Terah), Tefnakhte had recovered from two devastating setbacks. The first was the loss of his status as heir apparent due to the premature death of his father Khaemwaset son of Ramses II. The second came in defeat to Piye/Sargon. Unlike Tao, he would endure a third and final humbling. It would be inflicted by Psamtik/Taharqa and his army of Greek adventurers. i Prior to the last fall, Tefnakhte served as High Priest of Amun, which satisfied the requirements of his other dominant archetype, High Priest Amenemhet (Merari) son of Thutmose III. The office was taken away from Tefnakhte effectively ending his remarkable career. At the same Tefnakhte also witnessed the demotion of his two leading sons. The eldest, Masaharta/Mentuemhet, was reduced in rank from 1 st to 4 th Prophet of Amun and declared to be the new Aaron (Aanen). Fittingly, his younger half-brother Ramses-Psusennes was made over to be Moses, a role happily relinquished by Psamtik/Taharqa and transferred to him. (Note the correspondence between Aken-esh, the probable Libyan name of Ramses-Psuennes, and Akhen-aten.)

By giving his daughter the name of Nitocris, Psamtik/Taharqa designated himself as a repetition of the 6 th Dynasty pharaoh Neferkare Pepi II, who was father of an earlier famous queen by that same name. Psamtik also installed his man Ibi as the personal steward of Nitocris. Ibi was typecast after the 6 th Dynasty Ibi, a governor in Upper Egypt appointed by Pepi II and his close relative. a The 26 th Dynasty Ibi went so far as to copy a mural from the tomb of his 6 th Dynasty namesake for use in his own tomb (TT 36). b At this time, Psamtik also assimilated the role of Tao/Apepi, which Tefnakhte had not been able to fully satisfy before his forced retirement. The installation of Amenirdis II/Nitocris in Thebes was likely the last official act of Tefnakhte. c He was denied in his bid to become Great King. On the other hand, Psamtik/Taharqa, as son of Piye/Sargon, had a more than reasonable chance of succeeding to that coveted position. d At the age of only 21, he already could boast of having "united the Two Lands in his youth," and in accordance with another one of his own personal archetypes, Montuhotep II (Levi).

Piye-Sargon would have been pleased that his son Psamtik had curbed the growing power of Tefnakhte and his sons Ramses III and Masaharta. He likely would not have approved of Psamtik's alliance with "Harkhebi son of Haremakhet" and especially of Harkhebi's appointment as the new High Priest of Amun in the place of Masaharta. Haremakhet son of Shabaka had once been High Priest of Amun prior to the assassination of his father. In fact it was the election of Haremakhet to that post which ultimately led to his father's assassination. The previous High Priest, Amenhotep, was an eldest son of Shabaka by a different queen. He was the true son of Kashta. e However, after securing his kingship Shabaka suppressed Amenhotep in favor of his own true son Haremakhet. Henceforth, Amenhotep in effect became the political "son" of his half-brother Haremakhet, who was also soon to be named by Shabaka/Takelot III as Libyan successor, Osorkon IV, and heir apparent to the Egyptian/Nubian throne. The name Harkhebi, like that of Haremakhet, is considered to be a Nubian identity, and seems to have been used in place of Tanutamon/Tanuatamun, because of his earlier disgrace. Shabaka the father of Haremakhet and legal father of Amenhotep/Tanutamon/Harkhebi emphasized only his Nubian name Shabaka and Libyan name Takelot. His Egyptian identity is obscure, however before becoming pharaoh he may have been known as General Amenemope "father" of Bakenkhonsu. (See also Chapter 34, Note 2.)

When Shabaka was killed by Kashta, another one of Kashta's sons Piye usurped the throne. Piye not only subdued his own father, but also his younger brother Amenhotep and his nephew Haremakhet. On the Victory Stela of Piye, Kashta and Haremakhet were called by their Libyan names, Iuput and Osorkon, respectively. The vanquished Amenhotep/Tanutamon appears there as the prince and great Libyan chief Djed-amun-efankh of Per-Baneb-djed. f During his earlier tenure as High Priest, Amenhotep was probably known by other regional names, specifically Bakenkhonsu g (son of General Amenemope) and Ma-Huhy. Ma is a generic Libyan prefix, and Huhy is a variant of Huy the Egyptian short form of Amenhotep. Amenhotep/Harkhebi formed an alliance with another disgruntled prince, his nephew Psamtik/Taharqa, and made a stunning political comeback. h Upon his re-election as High Priest, Amenhotep was given a new Egyptian identity, evidently derived from his formerly disgraced names. He was no longer Tanutamon, Amenhotep/Ma-Huhy, Djed-amun-efankh, or Bakenkhonsu, but called Djed-khonsu-efankh. With this new name Djed-khonsu-efankh, Amenhotep/Harkhebi also became a divine High Priest, much like Masaharta who preceded him.

Smendes/Nimlot i might have been subdued by his brother Psamtik (in Year 9), but was more likely away from Egypt at the time to support the agenda of Piye-Sargon elsewhere. The second coming of the Sea Peoples, dated to Year 11 of Sargon as king of Assyria, also involved the overthrow of Hatti, Syria, Phoenicia and Palestine states. Despite the victory of Psamtik in Egypt, Smendes (then in his own Year 24), remained the heir apparent to their father Piye in the greater throne now in Assyria. Tradition demanded that Smendes in the role of "Judah-Rimush" eventually be appointed co-regent to Piye, who had assumed the role of "Jacob/Israel-Sargon." In the 18 th Dynasty, the role of Judah was played by Nimlot A/Thutmose IV, who was named the co-regent of Amenhotep II (Patriarch Jacob).

Consistent with the pattern, Smendes took a new name in his Year 25. The name selected was Menkheperre, which had been the throne name of the 18 th Dynasty Thutmose IV. It had also been the throne name of Thutmose III, and used by Piye as the latest incarnation of Thutmose III. The renaming of Smendes as "Menkheperre son of Menkheperre" left no doubt as to the succession order. However, for Smendes there was still the matter of reestablishing his authority in Egypt, and especially within the cult of Amun. Piye would have considered Smendes, his heir apparent, to be the best choice as a deified High Priest. Within a year, Sargon took action to remove that distinction from Harkhebi and give it to Smendes. Piye/Sargon first moved against Haremakhet in Babylon, who was known there by the Babylonian name Marduk-Balladin (the Biblical Merodach-Baladan son of Baladan j ). In Year 12 of Sargon, Marduk-Balladin was determined to be "unfaithful" and placed under attack. Marduk-Balladin fled to Elam, and Sargon then established his direct rule over Babylon. k Harkhebi "son of Haremakhet" was targeted next in Egypt.

"Provoke not Thy Children to Wrath"
(The Murder of Sennacherib)

To prove his worthiness as successor, Smendes cum Menkheperre was in that same year challenged by Piye-Sargon with the "labor" of wresting control of the Amun cult and its wealth away from Harkhebi/Djedkhonsuefankh, and if necessary, also deal with Psamtik (Taharqa) and Ramses III (Psusennes). In his Year 25, Smendes/Menkheperre marched with purpose on Thebes. With the use of some force, perhaps only a token show, he entered the Karnak Temple of Amun and was declared divine High Priest. (In the Biblical narrative of Josiah, Menkheperre appears as the prominent High Priest Hilkiah.) Afterwards, Menkheperre seems to have maintained two sets of regnal dates, one beginning with his appointment as High Priest and the other referenced to the beginning of his kingship as Smendes. Harkhebi was last heard from three year later in Year 14 of Psamtik (Year 28 of Smendes/Menkheperre), so he was evidently not suppressed violently as he had been in the reign of Shabaka/Tiglath-pileser III. He may have even remained as High Priest with Menkheperre acting as his regent, even as Masaharta had functioned under Piankh-Sematawy/Tefnakhte. However, Harkhebi was no longer allowed the status of pharaoh under the name of Djed-khonsu-efankh. l

It would not be until three years later that Piye-Sargon was ready to officially appoint Menkheperre as co-regent in Assyria, and under the Assyrian name of Sennacherib. In character for Piye-Sargon, he was in no hurry to announce his decision regarding succession. Moreover, there was a good reason to delay it. Year 28 was highly significant for Menkheperre, in that his former name Smendes was an epithet of Osiris, the god who was killed in the 28 th year of his reign. Smendes as Osiris endured a form of death as a king in Egypt, but was "resurrected" to greater glory as "king of the world," or so he would address himself in Assyrian inscriptions.

Sargon-the-Great is credited with a reign of 55 years. This would have been perceived as yet another blessing for his namesake Piye/Sargon II. However, after only 35 years of kingship, and only about a year after declaring Sennacherib as successor, Piye-Sargon was ambushed and killed in a routine "peacekeeping" operation. Piye-Sargon, supremely confident and ever mindful of the "cloud of witnesses" overshadowing his reign, was caught completely off guard. His "fate" should have been to rule for another 20 years, but he obviously underestimated the hatred he had inspired in his son and other officials.

The name of Sennacherib (Sin-ahhe-eriba), although probably given rather than assumed, conveys the curiously vindictive meaning, "(the god) Sin has compensated (the deaths of) the brothers." m It probably reflects the deadly feud that erupted between his father Piye-Sargon (Jotham) and Shabaka-Tiglathpileser III (Ahaz) not long after his birth. (Biblical Ahaz was accused of putting his "sons" to death.) Before that conflict of almost three decades ago, a very young prince Smendes had been made co-regent, not of his father Piye, but to Piye's much younger half-brother Pinedjem. This had been the express will of Ramses-the-Great himself before his passing. Politically speaking, the father of Smendes became as one of his sons. But, this all changed when Shabaka and then Piye usurped the throne of Ramses II, and Smendes was subjected one after the other to their regencies.

The passing of Pinedjem in his own Year 28 must have only added to the resentment of Smendes, who was then in his Year 24. Instead of becoming Great King, Smendes would endure four more years of frustration prior to being appointed only as "God-elect" for a second time. Moreover, he was still typecast as Judah, a role that not only carried an expectation of premature death, but also death before succeeding to the throne of one's father. Although no doubt a child provoked to wrath, n Sennacherib still required a pretext for removing his pompous, egomaniacal, self-righteous and anal-retentive father. For inspiration, Sennacherib probably looked to the great conqueror Tikulti-Ninurta the Assyrian alter ego of Thutmose III, whose mummy is doubtfully identified.

As the story goes, Tikulti-Ninurta became irrational, was declared mentally incompetent, and then killed by one of his own sons. Sargon II was likewise attacked with extreme prejudice. His body was either completely destroyed or not reclaimed so as to deny him a place in the afterlife. After Sargon's death, Sennacherib disassociated himself from the memory of his father. "Sennacherib allowed the theologians to affirm that the violent death of his father, and his failure to receive a proper burial, had been a result of Sargon's sin in building his new capital city." o This of course was the same rationalization used to explain the troubles of Sargon-the-Great. In Egypt, the image and name of the supposedly "Beloved" and "Perfect God" Piye were actually defaced on his monuments. p

In his 16 th and final year as King of Assyria, Sargon II had again turned his attention to the west. Although Cyprus and Phrygia were at peace, the land of Tabal in the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia was apparently vexing the king. "One year after Dur-Sharrukin was officially inaugurated Sargon 'went against Tabal and was killed in the war.' " He was perhaps emulating the deed of Sargon-the-Great, who according to legend went to Cappadocia of Anatolia in an attempt to make it safe for trade." q The body of Sargon II was not recovered, and therefore not properly buried. This did not appear to fulfill any prophesy or tradition. (The closest analog apperas to be the death of the Judah-figure Amenemhet in the early Middle Kingdom.) In fact, it would have been perceived as a curse and sign of disapproval on the part of the gods, which is precisely what Sennacherib intended for him.

One must imagine that Sargon II strode forth to his "fate" with the usual air of invincibility, but the illusion of grandeur cultivated over a lifetime was shattered in an instant. According to the Kings/Chronicles narrative, Jotham "rested with his fathers" and was buried in the City of David. The mummies of Osorkon III/Alara (Uzziah), Takelot III/Shabaka (Ahaz) and Rudamun/Piye (Jotham) are unaccounted for, so it is not possible to say for sure whether they were buried at Thebes, in el-Kurru of Nubia, Tanis in the Delta, Timbuktu, or as in the case of Sargon II, not at all. Perhaps the news of his ignominious death was suppressed, at least in far away Egypt. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it would have been assumed later that the king was buried in a manner befitting a righteous king of Judah after David.

Sennacherib had ensured that he would not be denied the succession, but as a consequence his family rivals could just as easily rationalize open revolt. Marduk-Baladan returned from exile and declared himself king in Babylon. Ramses III and Psamtik/Taharqa reclaimed their sovereignty over Thebes and Egypt. It took over a year for Sennacherib to gain the upper hand over Marduk-Baladin in Babylon, at which time Sennacherib then assumed the Babylonian king name of Nabopolassar (Nabu-appla-user). In the third year ("third campaign"), he turned his attention toward the rebellious "Hezekiah the Jew" (Ramses III). "Tarqu" (Taharqa) marched out in support of Hezekiah but then turned back. On this occasion at least he either chose not to risk losing his army or sold Ramses III out for a better deal with his half-brother Sennacherib. Ramses III was placed under siege by Sennacherib and forced to "cry uncle" to his first cousin.

The Hezekiah account doesn't mention Hilkiah directly, but only Eliakim son of Hilkiah (future king Jehoiakim) , who is named as "palace administrator," that is, a "steward" in Egyptian parlance. The Hezekiah account does explicitly acknowledge that Hezekiah "rebelled" against Sennacherib (Hilkiah) but later agreed to pay a king's ransom in gold and silver as tribute. On the other hand, the Josiah narrative does not mention an Assyrian attack, but features Hilkiah prominently. He is specifically honored by the title of "High Priest" and also actively participates in the Passover Observance. The only hint of conflict between Hilkiah and Josiah involves a veiled debate over the destruction of Jerusalem according to what was written in the Book of the Law." r

"Power to Tread on Serpents"
(Death Sentence and Reprieve for Hezekiah)

After the epic defense of Egypt against the "Peoples of the Sea," the second most notable event in the reign of Ramses III was the attempt on his life known as the "Harem Conspiracy." Opinion has been divided as to whether the death of Ramses III was caused by the intrigue, or whether the plot had taken place earlier in his reign and he recovered. The latter scenario is the more likely as Ramses III personally appointed 12 judges to preside over the hearings of 33 persons implicated in the assassination attempt. The chief culprits were found to be Queen Teye and one of her sons Pentawer/Pentaweret. s There is no mention of any punishment for the queen, and perhaps it was not possible to arraign her. Pentaweret was required to take his own life, as were many others.

The illness and recovery of Hezekiah occurred after the invasion of Sennacherib (dated to Hezekiah's Year 14) and before the celebration of the Passover in the following year (Year 15 of Ramses III/Year 18 of Psusennes I). After being healed, Hezekiah is informed by "word of the Lord" (Sennacherib) through Isaiah (Mentuemhet) that he would be allowed to live 15 years longer. t This would place the death of Ramses III in his Year 29, however he is known to have died in Year 32. Sennacherib, did place Jerusalem under siege a second time in Year 29, exactly 15 years later. It seems that he was determined to keep his word and end the life of Ramses just as promised. u However, Ramses III was better prepared and better supported by Taharqa in the second attack. (See the end of Chapter 39 for further discussion of the two sieges.) The Biblical narrative is careful to note the irony of Sennacherib's death, which it attributes at least indirectly to the second failed attempt to kill Hezekiah. However, in this case, rather than acknowledging that a prophesy had failed to come true, Hezekiah is not given credit for the final three years of his reign!

It is clear from the Biblical Kings narrative that Hezekiah was not expected to survive his earlier sickness. "In those days Hezekiah became ill and was at the point of death. The prophet Isaiah son of Amoz went to him and said, 'This is what the Lord says: Put your house in order, because you will die you will not recover." v During the trial, Ramses is referred to as "the great god" and speaks of himself as "in the company of Osiris," indicating that he passed away before judgments were issued by the court. w However, Ramses III (Hezekiah/Josiah) did not die from this palace intrigue, but from wounds suffered in battle at Megiddo. On the mummy of Ramses III, three amulets of the god Horus were found over his throat. Ramses III was also later invoked in the place of Horus as a charm against deadly snakebites. x This must have been associated with the assassination attempt and his survival. y

Before the role of Moses was imposed upon Ramses III, he had been patterned after Benjamin/Uzziel (Gudea of the 11 th Dynasty and Neby of the 18 th Dynasty). However, Sennacherib found a way to undermine that typecasting. Neby had not been given the role of Benjamin/Uzziel until after another prince of that time, Aakheperre son of Amenhotep II, became sick and died. If Ramses III were to die in a similar manner as Aakheperre, then Sennacherib could then reassign the role of Benjamin/Uzziel to one of his own sons. Judging from the Genesis account, Benjamin son of Jacob (Aakheperre son of Amenhotep II) was ill for a long time, z perhaps even 15 years before he finally passed away. After surviving the deadly bite of an adder, Ramses III could then claim the roles of both 18 th Dynasty Benjamins, Aakheperre and Neby. In the role of Moses, he was also entitled to a stay of execution. Akhenaten had not died immediately after the Exodus of his time, nor did Hammurabi. Ramses III no doubt considered the ordeal to represent a symbolic death, and his perceived divinity was undoubtedly enhanced as a result. He became a "living Osiris" and as such joined the lofty spiritual order not only of Moses but also Abraham and King Uzziah. aa

"Neither Shall Thine Eyes See All the Evil"
(The Passover Celebration Revived)

Two sons of Piye are known, one is Taharqa and the other Prince Khaliut. There is evidence to suggest a "conflict within the royal family, perhaps in the reign of Shabaqo or Shebitqo, between Prince Khaliut, a son of Piye, and Taharqo." ab Although the Biblical name of Sennacherib, Hilkiah, was patently derived (by transposition) from his Nubian name Khaliut, he did not seem to care for Nubia like his father Sargon. Ramses III/Shebitku was deeded the title of pharaoh in Nubia in exchange for tribute and other concessions, including maintenance of his Moses typecasting and probably refraining from any alliance with Taharqa. Hezekiah is quoted, "I intend to make a covenant with the Lord," ac that is, with his overlord Sennacherib.

In the first month of the first year of his new kingship (as Nubian pharaoh), Hezekiah orders repairs made to the temple. Meanwhile, the Book of the Law of Moses is "discovered" by Hilkiah the Priest, and this (he claims) is proof of certain doom for Jerusalem. A distraught Josiah does not speak to his oppressor Hilkiah face to face but only through intermediaries. For a second opinion on the Book's "interpretation," the prophetess Huldah and widowed wife of Shallum (Pinedjem I), that is, the Queen Mother and former God's Wife, is consulted for her knowledge of past events and therefore the ability to foresee those soon to come. Huldah is likely the mother of both Hilkiah and Josiah and therefore an objective party. Her answer: there is to be a final and more intensely destructive Exodus. ad For the sake of Hezekiah/Josiah it would be postponed, but in deference to Hilkiah it would not be cancelled. ae

In the second month, Hezekiah/Josiah presides as Moses over a large Passover observance. The celebration begins a month late (based on the Laws of Moses), purportedly because "not enough priests had consecrated themselves and the people had not assembled in Jerusalem." af The main temple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu in Western Thebes employed more than 60,000 persons, and at that time seems to have eclipsed even the Karnak Temple in activity and importance. ag It is unlikely that there would have not been enough staff there to support the event. The Jerusalem of Palestine was much closer to the remnant of tribal Israel that was invited to participate, but perhaps less equipped to host "a very large crowd of people." ah

Sennacherib reported that he had driven out over 200,000 people from Judah just the year before. ai Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II who preceded him had deported most of Israel. Those who had averted the dragnet and remained generally scoffed at the idea of celebrating anything, much less a Passover. And in truth, this particular observance was intended to be more than simply a revival - for it was both an admission that an Exodus had just occurred and that another perhaps even more traumatic Exodus was expected to follow. The royal family had decided to abandon Egypt as their capital in favor of Mesopotamia, and in order to complete another grand cycle of history. Apparently this would have occurred earlier if it had not been for the resistance of Ramses III to the will of Menkheperre/Sennacherib. The primary objective of the Exodus, at least from the perspective of the presiding Great King, was not the resettlement and healing aj of the oppressed in Egypt, but to increase the security of his new throne in Mesopotamia by weakening Egypt.

"You Shall Worship Before One Altar"
(The "Reforms" of Hezekiah)

The first turning point in the reign of Ramses III took place in his Year 5 (Year 8 of his reign as Psusennes). ak At that time, Egypt was invaded by the "Peoples of the Sea," that is, Greek mercenaries under the leadership of Psamtik/Taharqa. Despite his claim of victory at Medinet Habu (Jerusalem), Ramses-Psusennes was in fact subdued and required to accept a change in typecasting. It was also in Year 5 that a still very young Ramses III decided to begin construction on his mortuary temple. al In the opinion of one Biblical history author, it was in that very Year 8 that Josiah began to do good by seeking the "God of his father David" and acting in accordance with the Laws of Moses. am By his Year 12, Josiah was tearing down high places and Asherah poles, and attacking idols and images, not only in Jerusalem and Judah, but also in Israel.

The Papyrus Harris listed the works of Ramses III, everything from monumental construction at Karnak and Medinet Habu to the donation of flowers and clusters of grapes. The training of "lay priests" an is specifically noted, ao as well as the observance of festivals and even "old feasts." However, nothing resembling a Passover festival and nothing from his Year 15 (Year 18 of Psusennes) is mentioned. Likewise, there is no mention of any religious reforms. On the contrary, the document is careful to assert that Ramses III ordered the traditional carving of numerous cult images, great and grand statues, and figures. ap The Papyrus Harris shows that he was devoted not only to Amen, but also equally well to Ra, Ptah and to a lesser degree all of the gods and goddesses of Egypt and their local representations. As a Moses-figure, we would expect Ramses III to have suppressed Amen and other Egyptian cults in exclusive favor of Re, but this course was not taken by him. If Ramses III initiated any reforms, then they occurred outside Egypt proper in the Judah and Israel of Palestine. Within Egypt at least, Ramses III was far more interested in staying true to the role of Gudea/Inyotef II (Benjamin/Uzziel), who was distinguished for his service to the entire pantheon, and also for having grown abundantly stout. aq

Seals of Hezekiah have been discovered that feature winged-discs and scarab beetles, the symbols of solar religion in Egypt. As a Moses-figure, an emphasis on the sun god is actually to be expected. Yet, the accounts of Hezekiah and Josiah reveal other behavior that is inconsistent with the stereotype. Specifically, Josiah is said to have destroyed chariots in Jerusalem that had been dedicated to the sun. One gets the impression however that these chariots had been consigned to the scrap heap simply because they were obsolete, and that any cult association they possessed was completely incidental. Hezekiah, on the other hand, is said to have destroyed the brasen serpent Nehushtan, a prominent symbol associated with Moses and the Exodus. ar After surviving the bite of a deadly snake and becoming a type of Osiris himself, one might think that the relic would have taken on a greater significance to Ramses III, but it seems that just the opposite was true, or that he simply could not find a way to control (profit from) the people's reverence of it.

In an Assyrian inscription, Sennacherib called Hezekiah "overbearing and proud." as The Biblical Hezekiah narrative includes a taunt from Sennacherib's officer that Hezekiah unreasonably demanded that all the people worship at a single altar. at Hezekiah was an advocate of centralized religion, not so much for the sake of spiritual welfare, but for strengthening the state. If Egypt was to avoid conquest by foreign armies, she needed the means to pay for her defense through the conscription of native Egyptians into military and civil service. Ramses III, as the Biblical Hezekiah, was remembered as a great hoarder of wealth. The trait gained him a general reputation for being a miser, but made him immensely popular among the temple workers. This is reflected in the Biblical narrative where the stewardship of Hezekiah is praised:

"And Hezekiah had exceeding much riches and honour: and he made himself treasuries for silver, and for gold, and for precious stones, and for spices, and for shields, and for all manner of pleasant jewels: Storehouses also for the increase of corn [grain], and wine, and oil and stalls for all manner of beasts, and cotes for flocks." au Likewise, Ramses III was especially proud of his wealth. In his reign the treasury of Medinet Habu "groaned with gold, silver, and precious stones, which in the king's words numbered 'by the hundred thousand.' The temple granaries overflowed with grain, and the crops of its fields and herbs were bountiful 'as the sand of the shore.' " av "The king went so far as to boast of the riches in his palace in Thebes, speaking of his tableware being of fine gold, silver, and copper too numerous to count and of a multitude of foodstuffs, such as bread, beer, wine, and fatted geese and oxen, daily offered to the god." aw

"But when envoys were sent by the rulers of Babylon to ask him about the miraculous sign that had occurred in the land, God left him to test him to know everything that was in his heart." ax "Merodach-Baladan son of Baladan king of Babylon sent Hezekiah letters and a gift, because he had heard of Hezekiah's illness. Hezekiah received the messengers and showed them all that was in his storehouses - the silver, the gold, the spices . there was nothing in his palace or in all his kingdom that Hezekiah did not show them." ay In response, Isaiah denounced Hezekiah, " 'everything in your palace . will be carried off to Babylon . and some of your own flesh and blood, that will be born to you, will be taken away, and they will become eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.' " az

In the final years of Sennacherib (a.k.a. "God"), Merodach-Baladan (Osorkon IV/Haremakhet) became something of a double agent. He had always been an ally of Ramses III/Shebitku, but he also made a deal with Sennacherib and was ultimately named as his successor. (How this unlikely scenario happened will be explained in the following section.) Sennacherib was somewhat frustrated in his attempt to carry off the wealth of Ramses III and Egypt. It would be Marduk-Baladin, after becoming the Great King Esar-haddon, who successfully conquered Thebes with Assyrian troops and initiated the final destruction of Thebes.

The vanity of Hezekiah and his eagerness to show off his treasures invited criticism from the Biblical author. From the perspective of those devoted to the supremacy of Jerusalem (Thebes in Egypt), Hezekiah had grievously erred by eliciting the lust of "foreign" kings. When rebuked, his reaction was surprisingly smug. " 'The word of the Lord is good,' Hezekiah replied. For he thought, 'Will there not be peace and security in my lifetime.'" ba This character trait also is evident in the words of Ramses III. "From numerous bombastic speeches inscribed on the walls of his mortuary temple, his self-satisfaction is undeniable." bb However, it is difficult to say whether it was the true personality of Ramses III being expressed, or whether he was merely emulating the grandiloquent Gudea.

"The Youngest of My Brothers"
(Appointment of Esarhaddon as successor to Sennacherib)

Eleven years before his death, Nabopolassar found himself in full retreat before the combined army of Psamtik and an Assyrian ally, presumably Assur-uballit II, and "we find Egyptian forces operating against Chaldeans inside Iraq itself." bc The struggle of Psamtik/Taharqa against his half-brother Nabopolassar was pursued in repetition of the conflict between Tao I (Terah), the archetype of Psamtik, and his main rival Adad-Nirari (Judah/Nahor). Tao I ultimately prevailed against Adad-Nirari, and one of his sons Kara-indash (Haran) also recaptured Kish in Babylon. This instilled confidence in Psamtik that he would depose Nabopolassar/Sennacherib. Eleven years before the end of his reign, the "eldest son" of Sennacherib was deposed in Babylon by forces from Elam and replaced by an interloper named Mushuezib-Marduk. (See Chart for side-by-side comparison between the reigns of Sennacherib and Nabopolassar.) It seems reasonable that Mushuezib-Marduk was the assumed Elamite name of a son of Psamtik/Taharqa who was placed in the role of Kara-indash. bd A year later, Mushuezib-Marduk marched toward Assyria and was only turned back by Sennacherib with great loss. Two years after that, the city of Assur was captured by the Mede Cyax-ares, and Nabopolassar was compelled to offer him a treaty.

The following year, Sennacherib captured Mushuezib-Marduk and punished Babylon. be Surprisingly the new Crown Prince of supposedly "destroyed" Babylon was none other than Marduk-Baladin (Esar-haddon) with Sennacherib once again acting as regent. Esar-haddon (Haremakhet) also returned to favor in Egypt as High Priest of Amun under the regency of Menkheperre (Sennacherib). This indicates that Esar-haddon, the former enemy of Sennacherib had become his ally in the struggle with Psamtik and Mushuezib-Marduk, bf and was rewarded handsomely for it. A year after this, Sennacherib/ Nabopolassar with support from Cyax-ares subjected Nineveh in Assyria to a similar fate as Babylon. Assur-uballit II, the ally of Psamtik-Taharqa was forced out of Nineveh and then took refuge at Harran.

In emulation of his archetype Gudea/Inyotef II, Ramses-Psusennes (Usermaatre-Wasmuria) established petty kingships in Media, Elam/Persia, and Urartu/Armenia, where he was called by the variants Cyax-Ares, Cyrus and Rus, respectively. Ramses III planned to become Great King as his role model Gudea by bringing down "barbarian hordes" from the mountains to the north of Mesopotamia. The Median name Cyaxares is a transliteration of the Greek name Psusennes, as is the Persian name Cyrus. Another proto-Persian king name, Aria-ramnes, is an adaptation of Wasmu-aria Ramses III. According to the Talmud, Hezekiah had 11 different names. Besides the five-fold Egyptian titulary of Ramses III, which included the throne name Usermaatre/Wasmuria, he was also known as Akenesh (Libyan), Psusennes (Greek), Shebitku (Nubian), Cyax-ares (Median), and Koresh/Cyrus/ Aria-ramnes (Persian). He no doubt had many other names in other regions, such as Babylon and Hatti.

Sennacherib came to terms with at least two of his three main rivals in order to save his throne. In other words, he had been compelled to redefine his relationship with both Esar-haddon/Haremakhet and with Ramses-Psusennes/Shebitku in the face of an even greater challenge from Psamtik-Taharqa and Mushuezib-Marduk. However, only a year or so later, the balance of power shifted once again when Shebitku appointed Taharqa as co-regent in his Nubian throne. This prompted Sennacherib to go on the offensive again. First, Assuru-ballit II was attacked and forced out of Harran with help from his son Nebuchadrezzar. Then Sennacherib placed Shebitku (Hezekiah) under siege in Thebes (Jerusalem) for a second time. However, this time Taharqa did not keep his distance. The Assyrian army was annihilated and Sennacherib returned to Mesopotamia in humiliation. Hostilities appear to have ceased for about three years while Sennacherib contemplated his next move.

Sennacherib, having been a king for over 50 years and Great King for over 20 years, was in a dilemma. None of the four Judah-figures who preceded him had succeeded to the greater throne of the family empire much less lived to appoint a true son of their own as successor. In the final years of his reign, Nebuchadrezzar, called Nabu-sharru-user in Assyria, had emerged as heir apparent after distinguishing himself against Assur-uballit II. However, in what must have been a shocking move, Nebuchadnezzar and other sons were stilted, in favor of their father's one time nemesis Marduk-Baladin/Esar-haddon, not only as successor in Babylon but in the greater throne of Assyria. Nebuchadrezzar and the other contenders were outraged and civil war ensued.

Although unexpected, the decision had a sound basis, at least in the mind of its maker. Tradition demanded that the throne pass from Judah to a collateral line, but there was also precedent for the throne to be restored later to a descendant of Judah. In the 12 th Dynasty Amenemhet II (Judah II) was murdered by Senusret II (Jacob), but the throne was subsequently recovered by Senusret III son of Amenemhet. In the 18 th Dynasty, the throne passed from Menkheperre Thutmose IV (Judah IV) to Yuya (Joseph son of Jacob) but was later regained by Aye son of Thutmose IV. Sennacherib/Menkheperre must have believed that loss of the throne was inevitable, and that the only way for it to be restored to his line was to place one of his true sons in the role of Senusret III and Aye.

Esar-haddon claimed to be the "youngest son" of Sennacherib. He was not in age, but certainly in terms of blood ties to Sennacherib. Earlier, Ramses I (Jehoahaz) had been called the "youngest son" of Horemheb (Jehoram). Although he was also not a true son of Horemheb he did gain the succession for other reasons. Esar-haddon was actually the true son of Tiglath-Pileser III and at first the sworn enemy of Sennacherib. His succession, like that of Ramses, was due to other factors. First of all, it can be deduced that the "eldest son" of Esar-haddon, Assurbanipal, was actually the true son of Sennacherib. As Yuya had been the legal/adopted father of Aye, so Esar-haddon was the legal/adopted father of Assurbanipal through his marriage to the mother of Assurbanipal. In inscriptions, Assurbanipal explicitly claimed to be "offspring of the loins of Esarhaddon." bg Assurbanipal also called himself the "legitimate king," and frequently referred to Esarhaddon as "my own father" and to Sennacherib as "my own grandfather." bh His effort to establish the traditional dynastic relationship with his predecessor was excessive, and can now be revealed as propaganda to counter challenges to his right of kingship. In fact, he was not the biological son of Esarhaddon, but that of his alleged "grandfather" (second predecessor) Sennacherib.

Secondly, it was convenient for Sennacherib that Esar-haddon (Osorkon IV/Haremakhet in Egypt) bi was an Issachar-figure, and also chronically ill. bj In the 18 th Dynasty, Issachar was murdered by Simeon and Levi, and prior to the death of Judah. Therefore, Esar-haddon would succumb to a similar fate allowing Assurbanipal to become king during the lifetime of Sennacherib. Late in his reign, Sennacherib (Smendes I/Menkheperre) seems to have shared the High Priesthood of Amun with Esar-haddon (Haremakhet), who began to be called by the Egyptian name Ramses-nakht and the variant Usermaatre-nakht. bk Upon his appointment as successor, a new High Priest was installed, Smendes II, under the regency of Ramses-nakht. Smendes II, thought to be a true son of Menkheperre, emerges as the Egyptian identity of Assurbanipal, who referred to himself as "Assurbanipal, the holy high priest, the (ever)praying servant (of the gods) . " bl In the early reign of Ramses III (Hezekiah/Josiah), Assurbanipal had been appointed as Chief Scribe, and is called Shaban/Shaphan in the Kings/Chronicles narrative. In Assyria he became renowned as a scholar (Simeon/Thoth figure) and antiquarian. He built a vast library and claims to have deciphered records from before the Great Flood. The name Smendes is also a further indication of natural lineage from Menkheperre/Smendes I. It was also Assurbanipal rather than Esar-haddon who was later compelled to avenge the murder of Sennacherib. bm

Esar-haddon would have understood the risk he was taking, but accepted the fatalistic typecasting as reasonable, and with the expectation that it could be reworked to his advantage at some future date. Esar-haddon, although in poor health, expected to become Great King and founder of a lasting dynasty in fulfillment of what he called his "paternal legacy." bn His father Tiglath-pileser III had been cast in the role of Smenkhkare son of Auibre Hor/Hammurabi. Although Smenkhkare was disgraced and replaced by Neferhotep II/Salitis, one of his sons later reclaimed the throne for one of his own sons, Khyan. If Esarhaddon could outlive Sennacherib, then he would be free to install a true son of his in the role of Khyan. His typecasting, in addition to the Middle Kingdom Issachar would have encompassed the as yet unclaimed role of Old Kingdom pharaoh Khafre/Den. His challenge would be to find a way to survive his new regent Sennacherib, who already had a murderous reputation, and then to preempt Assurbanipal with one of his own true sons.

The arrangement of Esar-haddon and Sennacherib fulfilled all necessary prophesy, but it excluded the heir apparent Nebuchadnezzar (Nabu-kudurri-user). Nebuchadrezzar, who was called Nabu-sharru-user in Assyria and Sharezer in the Bible, conceived a two-fold scheme of his own to satisfy the fates and claim the throne for himself. His first move was to gain military and strategic dominance by finishing off Assur-uballit. In response, a king the Bible calls pharaoh-Neco marched north from Egypt to Carchemish in his defense. The Biblical text is ambiguous and translated by the KJV as "Pharoah-Nechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates." bo In other words, Necho was helping Assur-uballit, one king of Assyria, but fighting against another, namely Esarhaddon. Nebuchadrezzar allied with Esarhaddon convincingly defeated Necho and they had advanced together as far as the Egyptian Delta before getting news that the second part of the conspiracy had taken into effect. Sennacherib/ Nabopolassar was dead. Within a month Nebuchadnezzar was back in Babylon to claim the succession. Likewise, Esarhaddon departed in order to confirm his own succession in Assyria.

Sennacherib was guilty of assassinating his father Sargon. It was considered only just for Sennacherib to be murdered by a son of his own. Moreover, as "Judah (Horus the Elder)," it was his "destiny" to be killed by a "Levi (Set)." However, the inclusion of a Simeon-figure served to transform Sennacherib into an "Issachar (Osiris)," as well. A later inscription literally states that the god Marduk made Nebuchadrezzar commit the murder. bp Although Nebuchadrezzar did not physically perform the killing, he had planned the assassination and thereby accepted the role of Simeon. Immediately afterward, he also assumed the name of Siamun in Egypt, and claimed sovereignty there as Naram-Sin (Simeon I) had done after conspiring with Montuhotep II (Levi I) in the death of his predecessor Rimush (Judah I). In the Kings/Chronicles narrative, Sharezer has an accomplice named as Adrammelech, a variant of Urdamane (Amenhotep/Tanutamon). It was he, as the "Levi," who performed the actual murder by causing a cult statue to fall upon Sennacherib as he prayed and then perhaps finishing him off with the sword.

Esar-haddon reported that his "brothers," upon learning of his election, "abandoned godliness" and "went out of their senses." bq Esar-haddon claimed to have gone into hiding as his rivals clashed with one another, and while at least two of them conspired to kill Sennacherib himself in Babylon. After the death of Sennacherib, Esar-haddon forced his way into Nineveh and was then recognized as the "legitimate king" of Assyria. He also claimed to have become regent over Babylon, which implies that he and Nebuchadrezzar had agreed to share power there. Despite the blustering of Esarhaddon in his lengthy inaugural inscription and disavowal of any wrongdoing in connection with his predecessor's death, we find that he and Nebuchadnezzar immediately began to pursue a common agenda, and in fact were already doing so prior to the murder of Sennacherib/Nabopolassar. It must then be strongly suspected that Esarhaddon was not only privy to but also part of the conspiracy against Sennacherib. As noted above, Esarhaddon in the role of "son of Issachar" wanted to ensure that he got his chance to rule (in accordance with tradition). Esarhaddon’s father was the primary Issachar of that time, but Sennacherib was made to join him in that role.

"What Quarrel is There Between Us"
(The Death of Ramses III)

The Biblical Kings/Chronicles narrative recalls that on his way to battle at Carchemish, "pharaoh-Neco" was confronted by King Josiah. The epithet Neco/Necho, also written as Nekau, was adapted from Netjerkhau, the Horus name Pepi II, who became the primary role model of Psamtik. It can also be considered as a short form of Neferkare the throne name of Pepi II. When Psamtik became pharaoh of Nubia as Taharqa, he used an almost identical throne name, written as Nefer-tem-khu-re or Nefer-tem-khau-re. (Taharqa appears to also have claimed a shared of his father Piye's typecasting of Atum/Tem!) T he royal titulary of Taharqa also included the names Khu-tawy and Qa-khau. There is no cartouche associated with Nekau/Pharaoh Necho I, which is further indication that this was merely a popular epithet of Taharqa-Psamtik as the incarnation of Pepi II. br By emulating Pepi II, Taharqa-Psamtik effectively became the rival/double of Nebuchadrezzar in the Simeon role. He was already the "twin" of Tanuatamon in the Levi role.

Necho marched with urgency toward the Euphrates, however upon reaching Megiddo his progress was halted by Josiah. bs There has been much speculation as to why Josiah decided to do such a thing. However, in the model proposed here, Josiah is the Biblical representation of Psusennes/Ramses III/Shebitku, and Necho is Psamtik/Taharqa. Taharqa had been elected by Shebitku as co-regent in the Nubian throne about six years before the confrontation. Technically, Biblical Josiah was the superior of Necho. Normally, it would have been his prerogative to forbid any action Necho planned to take. However, the appointment of Taharqa as Nubian tanist was an admission by Shebitku that Taharqa was the stronger king and that Shebitku had desperately needed a powerful ally in his struggle against Menkheperre/Sennacherib.

Three years into the co-regency Shebitku was in fact rescued when Taharqa annihilated the army of Sennacherib. As a result, Taharqa no longer respected the authority of Josiah over him, directly or indirectly. This led to yet another rendition of the conflict between Horus the Elder and Seth. Necho quips, "What quarrel is there between you and me, O king of Judah? It is not you I am attacking at this time, but the house [of Sennacherib] with which I am at war." bt As in the original story, a battle ensued at Megiddo and Josiah (Ramses/Psusennes) as Horus was defeated by Necho (Nekau) in the role of Seth. Even though Josiah tried to disguise himself once the battle began, the overweight king was detected and shot with arrows. It is believed that he either died there at Megiddo or in Jerusalem only a short time later. bu However, when the mummy labeled as Ramses III was tested, it was not found to have the royal blood type, therefore Ramses III evidently had a commoner buried in his place! His confrontation with Taharqa was therefore likely staged, as well as his death.

Analysis of the mummy of Ramses III indicates an age at death of between 35 and 50 years. If he had first become pharaoh at the age of eight, his actual age (at the time of his staged death) was no greater than 45 years. This accounts for a two to three year delay between his elections as Psusennes I and Ramses III. Ramses III was buried with his arms crossed over his chest, as was traditional for a pharaoh of Egypt, however the hands were open rather than clasping the hook and flail. These all-powerful symbols were denied to him in burial as a subordinate ruler. None of his three thrones were fully sovereign but subjected first to the self-appointed Assyrian throne of Piye/Sargon and then to that of his successor Sennacherib. Whoever saw to his mummification decided to make that point clear, or simply refused to allow Ramses III's non-royal substitute to have that honor.

According to Jeremiah 46, the resounding defeat of Necho at Carchemish took place in the fourth year of Jehoiakim. This means that Jehoiakim (Psusennes II) was first appointed pharaoh at least three years before the death of Josiah (Psusennes I), and likely just after Sennacherib's second siege of Thebes. Ramses IV is also thought to have reigned between four and six years, which indicates that he was appointed pharaoh at about the same time as either Taharqa or Psusennes II. The age at death of Ramses IV, based on examination of his mummy, is somewhat less than 40 years. If accurate, and his mummy is also correctly identified, then this would all but rule out his claim of being a true son of Ramses III who was perhaps less than ten years his senior. However, he seems to have been an officially appointed successor.

"Ramesses IV is at pains to assert over and over again, on stelae, temple walls, and documents, that he is the legitimate ruler of Egypt, not a usurper, and that his offspring are the rightful heirs to the kingship." bv In the Papyrus Harris, Ramses III was represented as fully endorsing Ramses IV as his designated successor and urges this decision to be universally accepted. Although this document was probably written by Ramses IV on behalf of his deceased father, and of the same ilk as the Instruction of Amenemhet, bw it probably still documents a proper election, especially if the above assertions were made while Ramses III was still living. However, after Taharqa spurned the command of Ramses III at Megiddo, he also rejected Ramses IV as successor to Ramses III in the Egyptian throne.

After being routed by Nebuchadrezzar and Esarhaddon, partly due to being thwarted rather than supported by Josiah, Necho returned to Jerusalem. Josiah was by then dead for three months, and his throne was being claimed Jehoahaz (Ramses IV) son of Queen Hamutal (Henutawy) daughter of Jeremiah I (Pinedjem I). Henutawy would have been the same queen who led the earlier conspiracy against Ramses III. Ramses IV was evidently not punished for the sin of his mother, but he still strove to confirm his legitimacy in public inscriptions. Irrespective, Necho imprisoned Jehoahaz (Ramses IV) bx and named Jehoiakim (Psusennes II) son of Josiah (Psusennes I/Ramses III) king instead.

Psusennes II (Eliakim/Jehoiakim) was a son of the God's Wife Maatkare/Isis/Nitocris, and therefore a grandson of Necho/Taharqa. Consistent with this, the queen is called Zebidah/Zebudah daughter of Pedaiah in the Bible. by This Hebrew name was apparently adapted from her Syrian epithet Habazillatu ("The Meadow Flower") bz and her Assyrian name Zakutu. Her son the Biblical Eliakim/Jehoiakim is called the son of Hilkiah in the Hezekiah narrative and in the Book of Isaiah. However, upon being named king of Judah by Necho he is instead called the son of Josiah. If Eliakim was the true son of Hilkiah, then he was probably made co-regent in the throne of Judah (Libya) by Necho/Taharqa as an act of appeasement to the partisans of murdered Hilkiah (Sennacherib/High Priest Menkheperre). Eliakim would have then only been a son of Josiah in the political sense. (Psusennes I had previously given one of his daughters, Isetemkheb, to High Priest Menkheperre in marriage.)

The reign of Psusennes II is fairly obscure. Reign lengths between 5 and 14 years have been proposed. The Bible gives Jehoiakim a reign length of 11 years, which would include the years he spent as co-regent before the death of Josiah. Although his Hebrew name was changed from Eliakim to Jehoiakim, ca he did not appear to receive a new election as pharaoh of Egypt, but merely allowed to continue in his Libyan throne by Necho. Psusennes II also remained, as his throne name Tyet-kheperure cb suggests, in the tragic role of Nebkheperure Tut (Joshua II). The disgraced Ramses IV was treated as Elijah-Smenkhkare II, who had also been deposed and killed only three months after Moses-Akhenaten was himself dethroned. The mummy of Ramses IV was discovered in the KV 35 (Amenhotep II) cache. It is not known whether there are any signs of a violent death. cc Smenkhkare had been struck down, but later buried in defiance of the family elders in the Valley of the Kings (KV 55). This would have set a precedent to be followed for Ramses IV.

As implied by the Biblical text, Necho was acting as regent in the throne of the deceased Josiah (Ramses III). Consistent with this, Psamtik/Taharqa added to his Libyan/Greek and Nubian thrones that of Egypt under the name Neferkhaure Ramses (IX). His new throne name, Nefer-khau-re, was only slightly abbreviated from the one he used as Taharqa, and reinforced his preferred typecasting as the Horus Netjerkhau (Necho/Nekau), Pepi II. His defiance and killing of Ramses III would have otherwise reinforced the less desirable typecasting of Levi (the god Set). However, this role was shared only weeks later when Sennacherib (Judah) was murdered by Urdamane/Tanutamon (Adrammelech). In the latter part of his reign, Psamtik/Taharqa became adverse to the role of Seth/Levi, who was "no longer considered patron of the conquering Nineteenth Dynasty kings but simply the god of the Hyksos." cd The reverence of Set may have peaked with the short reign of Setnakhte, who had made identification with the last great Hykos king, Apophis. ce

In Nubia, Taharqa exulted in a "miracle" that occurred in his Year 6. There had been an exceptionally good flood, which carried with it the expectation of prosperity. What went unsaid was that Ramses III as Moses had made his "Exodus" in that year from Egypt (to better cultivate kingships elsewhere, such as Persia), and Taharqa was now sole ruler of Egypt! Once in possession of both the Nubian and Egyptian thrones, Taharqa could also dictate elections in the lesser Libyan throne. In addition to upholding the kingship of Psusennes, he also appointed Wah-em-ibre Necho II. The throne name Wah-em-ibre pigeonholed this crown prince as the next Moses, and a replacement for Necho I/Taharqa and/or Ramses III, who left the role partially unfulfilled by his premature death/departure. This was a role originally assigned to Taharqa as Wahibre Psamtik, but later pawned off on Ramses III.

Although the intended role of Necho II is obvious, his identity within the royal family is not. There seems to be some evidence that Necho II was the true son of another by-gone Moses-figure, Bakenrenef/Bocchoris, whose Libyan kingship had been "sacrificed" so many years before. cf More likely, Necho II was a son of Necho I/Taharqa, and may in fact also have been the exiled prince Assur-uballit II, cg who was supported by Necho on at least one occasion. Alternatively, if Assur-uballit II was the true son of Assurbanipal (Smendes II), as he is generally thought to be, then his election as pharaoh may have been part of an (attempted) alliance formed between Psamtik/Taharqa and Assurbanipal. T he roles of most of Sargon the Great’s sons (Rimush/Judah by Sennacherib Montuhotep/Reuben by Ramses III Inyotef/Simeon by Nebuchadrezzar and Montuhotep II/Levi by Taharqa and Tanuatamon) had been played. Sargon the Great himself had been played by Piye. At question was which of the younger princes would emerge to become the neo-Gudea.

    Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p 122. Similarly, the name Mentuemhet if not the actual Egyptian/Nubian given name of Sheshonq/Masaharta, would have been deliberately recycled from the reign of Pepi II. Nigel & Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, p 166. Tefnakhte, a.k.a., Piankh-Sematawy, is thought to have died about the same time as Ramses XI. Note the phonic resemblance between the name Psamtik (Psa/Psao-metjik) and Tao (Tsao) See Chart 26a. Although likely still a very young man at the time of his defeat by Piye, Djed-amon-efankh already had a wife and prominent "eldest son," Ankhhor. Bakenkhonsu was High Priest late in the reign of Meremptah. Ma-Huhy is the name of the High Priest in the reign of the following pharaoh Amenmesses. In the chronology proposed here, both were contemporaries (and probable alter egos) of High Priest Amenhotep in the early reign of Shabaka. Bakenkhonsu successively held all four priestly offices (Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 130). This was probably in emulation of Amenhotep/Aanen of the late 18 th Dynasty. Ma-Huhy was replaced by Roma-Roy, which by association is likely another name of Haremakhet/Osorkon IV. Haremakhet, like both Amenhotep and Psamtik, was still a very young prince. It is unlikely that any true son of Haremakhet was powerful enough to have become a political force in his own right by Year 9 of Psamtik. This further indicates that Harkhebi was not a natural son of Haremakhet, but the Nubian identity of Amenhotep. He was called by his Libyan name Nimlot on the Victory Stela of Piye. 2 Kings 20:12 Isaiah 39:1. Bala-dan II (Osorkon IV/Assur-dan IV) was of the male line of Bala-dan I (Osorkon III/Assur-dan III). The archetypal Judah, Rimush, was chosen by Sargon-the-Great as his successor in Babylon rather than Assyria. It was not until after becoming king in Babylon that Sargon II named Smendes/Menkheperre as his own successor. He might also have been referred to once again by the name of Bakenkhonsu (II) during this short period. Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, p 319. Cf Ephesians 6:4 Colossians 3:21 Wolfram von Soden, The Ancient Orient, p 58. Robert Morkot, The Black Pharaohs, p 200. H. Saggs, Peoples of the Past: Babylonians, p 70. 2 Kings 22:8-20 2 Chron. 34:14-28 (The "Book of the Law" was used as moral justification for destroying Jerusalem in accordance with prevailing royal policy, that is, moving the capital of the empire to Mesopotamia.) He was perhaps the Chief of the Ma, Pentweret, named in the Victory Stela of Piye. Ramses III celebrated a traditional Heb-Sed festival in his Year 30. However, there seems to have been some doubt as to whether he would reach that coveted event. Like the dying Horemheb/Osorkon II, Ramses III celebrated a type of Heb-Sed in his Year 22. See Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 92-93. In Year 29 of Ramses III the tomb workers of Deir el-Medina could not be paid and went repeatedly on strike. (Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 30.) Isaiah 20:1 (NIV) Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 9. Cf Psalm 91:13 Mark 16:18 Luke 10:19 Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 110-111. Genesis 42:4, 35-38 (Jacob was fully aware that Joseph was still alive. Benjamin likely did not travel because of his health.) For the typecasting of Abraham as Osiris, see Chapter 13. For Uzziah, see Chapter 34. Robert Morkot, The Black Pharaohs, p 200. 2 Chron. 29:10 (NIV) Sennacherib points out (with some humor no doubt) to Hezekiah and the people that he also acted by "word of the Lord," i.e., Yahweh (Amen)! He was after all not only Great King but the current High Priest of Amun, Menkheperre! " 'Have I come to attack and destroy this place without word from the Lord? The Lord himself told me to march against this country and destroy it' " - 2 Kings 18:25 (NIV) 2 Kings 22:11-20 2 Chron. 34:19-28 2 Chron. 30:3 (NIV) Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 104. 2 Chron. 30:13 (NIV) Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 288. 2 Chron. 30:20 As a point of synchronization, it is noted in 2 Kings 18:9 that Shalmaneser attacked Samaria in Year 4 of Hezekiah (Year 7 of Josiah). The text has confused the deportation of Samaria and Israel, which occurred shortly before Hezekiah/Josiah became a king with the second invasion of the Sea Peoples, which occurred in Years 4 and 5 of Hezekiah (Years 7 and 8 of Josiah). Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 94. 2 Chron. 34:3-7 2 Chron. 35:5 Eyewitness: Ancient Egypt, Jon E. Lewis, ed., p 226. Eyewitness: Ancient Egypt, Jon E. Lewis, ed., pp 227, 229. Ramses III like Gudea was obese. See Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 106. Ironically, this trait may have helped to save his life. His half-brother Masaharta was also corpulent. (Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 155) We might expect that another half-brother Menkheperre was fat as well, and in emulation of his personal archetype Rimush (Judah/Eglon) son of Sargon. 2 Kings 17:37 Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 288. 2 Chron. 32:12 2 Kings 18:22 2 Chron. 32:27-28 (KJV) Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 104. Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 31. 2 Chron. 33:31 (NIV) 2 Kings 20:12-14 (NIV). See also Isaiah 39. 2 Kings 20:16-18 (NIV) 2 Kings 20:19 Isaiah 39:8 (NIV) Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 31. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Ian Shaw, ed., p 381. Compare the name Wah-ib-re Psamtik and his successor Wah-em-ib-re Necho with that of Mushuez-ib-Marduk. (Marduk was called Re in Egypt.) Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 302. Joan Oates, Babylon, pp 119-120. A son of Marduk-Baladin had been killed in battle against Mushuezib-Marduk. Ibid. Robert Morkot, The Black Pharaohs, p 277. Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET), J. Pritchard, ed., pp 294-301. Osorkon F/IV is Manetho's Asardinos/Asordanios, very close in form to Esarhaddon. "Esarhaddon . had held an especial belief in omens because of his sickliness. Thus he had a substitute king installed three times, each time having himself entitled 'Mr. Farmer.' One of the three substitutes died in a timely fashion the two others had to be killed, and were then honored by a state funeral." Wolfram von Soden, The Ancient Orient, p 194. For additional commentary on Esarhaddon's practice of this ritual, see Jean Bottero, Mesopotamia, pp 150-152.. Usermaatre had been the throne name of Ramses-the-Great. Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET), J. Pritchard, ed., p 298. Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET), J. Pritchard, ed., p 288. Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 289. 2 Kings 23:29 (KJV) Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 309. Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. J. Pritchard, p 289. Necho, the epithet of Psamtik/Taharqa, was used as a king name by Necho II. Similarly, in the 19 th Dynasty, the epithet of Seti I was Meremptah, and this became the name of a later pharaoh, the successor of Ramses II. 2 Kings 23:29-30 2 Chron. 22-24 2 Chron. 35:21 (NIV) Kings and Chronicles differ on this point. 2 Chron. 35:24, 2 Kings 23:30 Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 137. See Chapter 7. Ramses I was also called Ahaziah/Jehoahaz in the Kings/Chronicles narrative. 2 Kings 23:36. Pedaiah was derived from Necho's Libyan name Pediese. See Chapter 37. Definition from: Susan Redford, The Harem Conspiracy, p 32. 2 Kings 23:34 The subtle name change was perhaps intended to flatter the holier-than-thou priests of Amun. Necho replaced the Canaanite god El in Eliakim with Jehovah to render the new name of Jehoiakim. Cf Tit-kheperu-re (Kheper, "sun's rising") and Jehoiakim ("Jehovah raised") Biblical Manasseh (Taharqa) is censured, as was the earlier Ahaz, for making his son pass through the fire (2 Kings 21:6). Taharqa may have considered it necessary to "sacrifice" Ramses IV who was placed in the role of the 18 th Dynasty Smenkhkare in order to fulfill his own role as the Middle Kingdom Smenkhkare. The arms of Ramses IV were placed in the same manner as Ramses III. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 356. It was Apophis who first elevated the cult of Seth in the Delta, but then "changed his ways" and worshiped the "true god" Amun Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Egypt in Ancient Times, p 364. Formerly known as Mushuezib-Marduk?

"So Psammetichus gained control of all Egypt. He built the southern gateway of the sanctuary of Hephaestus in Memphis, and opposite the gateway of the sanctuary of Apis he built the courtyard where Apis is looked after whenever he appears this courtyard is surrounded by a colonnade (consisting of figures, twelve cubits high, rather than pillars) and covered with reliefs. The Greek name for Apis is Epaphus. [154] As a reward to the Ionians and Carians who had helped him win, Psammetichus gave them each their own land to settle."

Herodotus, Vol 2, Section 153, translated by Robin Waterfield, Herodotus: The Histories, Oxford University Press, pp 157-158.


Glossary of ancient Egyptian terms and names

Aah, Iah Moon sacred to Osiris, Djehuty (Thoth) and Khonsu Abdu Heba Ruler of Jerusalem, contemporary of Akhenaten Achotep, Ahhotep, Ahotep Apparently two queens, although it has been suggested that there may have been just one: 1) Queen, daughter of Tao I, sister/wife of Tao II Sekenenre 2) Queen, possibly wife of Kamose Achenaten, Akhenaten, Akhenaton, Akhnaten, Akhnaton Amenhotep IV, a New Kingdom pharaoh, 18th dynasty Aegis (Greek) Ornamental collar, menat Ahmose, Amasis 1) Two pharaohs – Ahmose I 18th dynasty and Ahmose II, 26th dynasty 2) Ahmose-Nefertiri, Queen of the 18th Dynasty 3) Ahmose Son of Ebana, admiral under king Ahmose I (Autobiography) 4) Ahmose Pen-nekhbet, high official under Ahmose I (Autobiography) Akhet (Ax.t [1]), Shait Season of inundation, from mid-July to mid-November in Ptolemaic times Akhetaten, Al Amarna, El Amarna Capital of Akhenaten, 18th dynasty Akh (Ax) at times translated as ‘soul’, cf. Body and Soul Akhu, akhet (Ax.t): The blessed dead, ancestors Akhtoy, Kheti Alashia, Alasyia Probably Cyprus Amen, Ammon, Amon, Amun, Amoun, Amun-Re or Amen-Re Main God during the New Kingdom, identified with Zeus by the Greeks Amenemhab, Amenemheb War companion of Thutmose III (Amenemhab’s Biography) Amenemhet, Amenemhat Four pharaohs of the 12th dynasty Amenhotep 1) 4 New Kingdom pharaohs, 18th dynasty, often called by the (incorrect) Greek form Amenophis 2) Son of Hapu, scribe, favourite of Amenhotep III (Autobiographical inscription) Amenemope, Amenemopet 1) Family of high New Kingdom officials 2) Vice-roy of Kush under Seti I 3) Vizier under Amenhotep II Amenirdis Wife of the God (High priestess of Amen) Amenmes New Kingdom pharaoh, 19th dynasty Amenmose 1) Son of Thutmose I and Ahmose, general 2) Brother of Nefertari, mayor of Thebes 3) Son of Bekenptah, officer under the Ramessides Amenophis according to Manetho Greek for Amenhotep and still often used in this sense philologically correct for Amenemope (imn-m-ipt) Amenti Realm of the Dead, cf Duat Ammit, Ammut Chimaera, destroyer of the hearts of dead who were not justified Amorites, Amurru People in Retenu (Today’s Lebanon and western Syria) Amratian Middle pre-dynastic period, 3550 to 3400 BCE, also called Naqada IA and IB Amulet Charm Anch, ankh (anx) Symbol of enduring life Anchesenamen, Anchesenamun, Ankhesenamen, Ankhesenamun, Ankhesenaten, Ankhesenpaaten Wife of Tutankhamen, 18th dynasty Anchnesmerire, Ankhnesmeryre Queen, Mother of Pepi II Anhuret, Anhur, Onuris Identified with the Greek Ares. His main cult was at Papremis Ankh Life, its hieroglyph was often worn as an amulet Ankhmahor 6th dynasty vizier Ankhtifi nomarch in Upper Egypt during the FIP Anubis, Anpu, Khenty-Imentiu, Hermanubis God, conductor of souls Antef see Intef Antefoker Mayor and vizier under Senusret I Anubis, Anpu God of the necropolis Apep see Apopis Apepi Two Hyksos kings Aphrodite the Greek equivalent of Hathor Apis, Serapis, Osiris-Apis Bull symbolizing fertility venerated at Memphis Apophis, Apopis, Apep The serpent of Chaos, sometimes equated with Seth Apotropaic (from Greek) Having the power to avert evil Artaxerxes 2 Persian kings and Egyptian pharaohs (27th dynasty) Arura, aroura (Greek) The ground covered by a yoke of ploughing oxen in one day, about 2700 m² Artaba (Persian) Dry measure, about 36 litres in classical times, about 27 litres under the Ptolemies. Aser, Asr, Ausas see Osiris Aset, Ast, Auset see Isis Ashur-Uballit King of Assyria, contemporary of Akhenaten Atef Crown worn by Osiris Aten, Aton The sun disk, unique god of Akhenaten Avaris, Awaris Capital of the Hyksos kings in the Delta Ay 1) Merneferre, pharaoh of the 13th dynasty 2) Ay, Aye, Ai, Kheperkheperure Vizier of Tutankhamen and pharaoh of the 18th dynasty

Ba (bA) The “soul” Spiritual force such as an anonymous divinity Manifestation of a god The king’s power to rule The eternal forces of a human, depicted in tombs as a bird with a human head. Ba’ah, Seba-djai The planet Venus Badarian Early pre-dynastic period, 3800 to 3500 BCE, also Fayum A or Merimda Bai, Bay Chancellor of Ramses Siptah, 19th dynasty Bakare Listed in the Turin King list as successor of Khafre Bakenkhons, Bakenkhonsu, Bekenkhonsu High Priest of Amen under Ramses II, possibly father of Nefertari, member of the Amenemope clan, block statue Bast, Bastet, Ubasti, Pasht Goddess of the home, Artemis to the Greeks. Her cultural centre was at Bubastis Bat Goddess with the form of a cow, from the Middle Kingdom on merged with Hathor Bau Messenger or appearance of a deity Benben 1) The first land to rise from the primordial waters. 2) Pyramid shaped sacred stone at Heliopolis Bennu bird (bnw) see Phoenix Bes, Bisu Dwarf god Biridiya Ruler of Megiddo, contemporary of Akhenaten Book of the Dead Better The Book of Going Forth by Day. A collection of magical writings placed in tombs since the New Kingdom with the intention of helping the deceased in the after-life. Burnaburiash Kassite king of Babylonia, contemporary of Akhenaten Byblos (Greek), Gebal, Gubla, Kubna (Egyptian) City in Lebanon, important to Egyptian trade byssus fr. Greek bussos, fine linen

Cambyses, Kambyses Persian king, conqueror of Egypt, founder of the 27th dynasty Canaan Today’s Israel and southern Lebanon, above all the coastal region Canobic, Heracleotic (from Latin, Greek) The westernmost arm of the Nile, after the city of Canobus (Canopus) Canopic jars (from Latin, Greek) Vessels containing the inner organs of the deceased, generally four, in the form of the sons of Horus (from Canopus, see above) Cartonnage (French) Expression used by Egyptologists for the masks and coffins made of cardboard like materials. Cartouche (French) The name of a pharaoh in hieroglyphs surrounded by an oval band denoting eternity Cataract (from Greek kataraktes down-rushing) Rapids, waterfall. The first Nile cataract was Egypt’s southern border Chadouf (Arabic) see Shadouf Chafre, Chefren see Khafre Chamudi see Khamudi Cheops, Chufu see Khufu Choachyte Greek for Egyptian wAH mw, lit. Dispenser of water, Priest in charge of the cult of the dead who, for a fee, carried out the role of undertaker Chons, Chonsu see Khons Chthonic (Greek) from the earth. Chthonic deities: Sepa, Heqet etc Cippus (Latin) Pointed rectangular pillar, in Egyptology: Amulet or stela showing Horus triumphing over dangerous beasts Circumcision The surgical modification of the genitals of boys and men Coffin Texts Magical writings written on coffins since the FIP. Corbel (from Latin) Projection jutting out from wall, supporting structure above it. Used to make false arches Corvée (French) Tax in the form of labour Crook, heka Originally a shepherd’s staff it became a symbol of power carried by pharaohs and high officials Cubit (Origninally from Latin) Linear measure. 1) Short cubit: 6 palms = 24 fingers 2) Royal cubit : 7 palms = 28 digits – 52.3 cm

Darius 2 Persian kings and Egyptian pharaohs (27th dynasty) Deben, (dbn) Weight, equal to 10 kit, originally 27gr (copper), 13gr (gold), from NK on about 91 grammes Greek period: monetary unit worth 20 silver drachmas, later 20 copper drachmas Decans (from Latin decem, ten) 36 star constellations, each rising above the horizon at sunrise during ten days every year, used by the ancient Egyptian calendar Demotic (Greek) the last stage of development of the ancient Egyptian script Demurrage Charge paid by the depositors of grain in the state granaries, see credit Dendarah, Denderah Site of Hathor’s main temple Deshret (dSr.t) 1) The red crown of Lower Egypt 2) The red land, i.e. the desert Dionysos Greek god, identified with Osiris Djahi, Zahi Ill defined coastal region in Canaan Djed pillar, djet pillar (Dd) Hieroglyph often carried as an amulet, linked to the Osiris myth Djehuti, Thoth 1) God of knowledge and wisdom, moon god, identified with Hermes Trismegistus by the Greeks 2) Scribe, general and viceroy under Thutmose III Djet (Dt) Eternity, continuous and linear as opposed to neheh Djoser, Zoser Old Kingdom pharaoh, 3rd dynasty Drachma Greek monetary unit, divided into 6 obols. The standard coin in use was the silver tetradrachma worth four drachmas. Duat (dwA.t) Originally the starry sky. The Realm of the Dead, populated by the deceased who have become stars. Often somewhat misleadingly referred to as Underworld or Netherworld. Dynasty (from Greek) Line of hereditary rulers

Early dynastic Historic period, 3050 to 2600 BCE, also called Naqada IIIA1 to IIIC1 Echnaton see Akhenaten El Amarna, Al Amarna (Arabic), Akhetaten Capital of Egypt under Akhenaten, 18th dynasty Electrum (from Greek) A gold and silver alloy, used for covering the tips of obelisks Encaustic (from Greek) paint based on wax Ennead (from Greek enneas, nine) A group of nine deities, such as the Ennead of Heliopolis All the gods of a locality Execration texts Texts containing curses against (state) enemies, cf. Execration rituals Eye of Re See Hathor

Faience (from French, after the Italian town of Faenza) Glazed ceramics, often blue or green Faiyoum, Faiyum, Fayoum, Fayum, Fayyoum, Fayyum Fertile low-lying region west of the Nile False door symbolic door for the ka, painted or carved on a tomb wall FIP First Intermediate Period Flail, flagellum (from Latin flagrum, scourge), nekhekh, nekhakha A flail carried by the pharaoh symbolizing his power attribute of Osiris and Min.

Geb, Keb Earth god Gebal, Gubla see Byblos Genital mutilation The surgical modification of the genitals of girls and women Gerzean Late pre-dynastic and protodynastic periods, 3400 to 3050 BCE, divided into Early Gerzean, 3400 to 3300 BCE (Naqada IC, IIA, IIB) Middle Gerzean, 3300 to 3200 BCE (Naqada IIC) Late Gerzean, 3200 to 3050 (Naqada IID1, IID2) Gesso (Italian) Mixture of plaster of Paris and glue, used as a kind of putty God’s Father Priest of intermediate rank. God’s Land, Egyptian tA nTr (Ta netjer) Term used for some foreign, generally wooded regions: Punt in the south, but also regions in Syria etc. Great Green (literal translation of wAD-wr ) Generally supposed to denote the Sea, especially the Mediterranean. It has also been proposed to stand for the Nile (delta) or the Fayum. Griffin Chimaera with a lion’s body and a falcon’s head, since the OK symbol of the victorious ruler

Hah Personification of eternity, props up the heavens Hamamat, Hammamat Wadi connecting the Nile valley to the Red Sea near Thebes Hannu see Henenu Hapi, Hapy 1) God of the Nile 2) One of the Four Sons of Horus Hapiru, Apiru, Habiru Nomadic asiatics of the 2nd millennium BCE, often considered outlaws. Used to be wrongly identified with the Hebrews Harakhte God, see also Horus, Re Harem (Arabic), Egyptian ipet institution run by the pharaoh’s first wife for the benefit of the pharaoh’s wives and female relatives, not to be confounded with the muslim harem of later times Haremhab see Horemheb Hathor Goddess of sky, love, mirth, beauty and fertility Hatshepsut, Hatshepsowe Female pharaoh, 18th dynasty Hatti, Kheta Anatolian nation, in conflict with the Egyptians during the New Kingdom Heb Sed (Hb-sd) festival (Hb) celebrated after 30 years of rule or more frequently. Its precise purpose is unknown, but is supposed to have to do with the pharaoh’s rejuvenation. Hedjet, nefer-hedjet (nfr-D.t) the white crown of Upper Egypt Heka (HkA) Magic Heka-khase (HqA-xAsw.t ) see Hyksos Hekat, Heket see Heqat Heliopolis, On Main temple of the sun god Re Hemaka Royal sealbearer (chancellor) under Den (1st dynasty) Henenu, Hannu, Henu Steward and overseer of herds, 11th dynasty Henku Nomarch, late OK (Inscription) Hephaestos, Hephaistos The Greek equivalent of Ptah Hepu Vizier under Thutmose IV Hepuseneb First prophet of Amen under Hatshepsut Heqa (HqA.t) Crook, symbol of pharaonic authority Heqat (HqA.t) Measure of volume of varying size: 1) Barrel, bushel. Divided into 10 hin, c. 4.8 litres, used throughout history 2) Common bushel, double barrel, c. 9.6 litres, Middle to New Kingdom 3) Large bushel, also called oipe, about 19.2 litres Heqat, Heqet, Hekt, Hekat, Heket (Hq.t) Goddess of birth in the form of a frog Her-ka-pet The planet Saturn Hermanubis, Anpu, Khenty-Imentiu see Anubis Heru see Horus Heru-deshret The planet Mars Her-wepes-tawy The planet Jupiter Heseb (Hsb) Square measure: One quarter of a tA, divided into 2 sA Hesire Overseer over the royal scribes under Djoser (3rd dynasty), physician and dentist Hierakonpolis (Greek), Nekhen Ancient southern capital Hieratic (from Greek hieratikos, priest) Cursive writing of Hieroglyphs Hieroglyphics (from Greek hierogluphicos, sacred writing Egyptian writing using stylized pictures (hieroglyphs) Hin (hnw) lit. jar, one tenth of a heqat, about half a litre Hittites People of Hatti Hor 1) Hor, pharaoh, probably 13th dynasty 2) Hor, priest during the Late Period 3) Hor, mountain in northern Canaan 4) see Horus Horbaf Son of Khufu (4th dynasty), vizier Hordjedef, Djedefhor Son of Khufu (4th dynasty) Horemheb New Kingdom general and pharaoh, 18th dynasty Horus, Hor, Heru, Hru Sun god, son of Isis and Osiris Horus name First of the pharaonic titles, often written in a serekh Hotep Senusret (Kahun) Middle Kingdom planned town House of Life Repositories for knowledge in temples Hyksos The Heqa-khasut, wrongly translated as Shepherd Kings, an Asiatic people, founded a kingdom in Northern Egypt, 15th and 16th dynasties Hypostyle (Greek hupostulos, under columns) Building with roof supported by pillars

Ikhernofret Chancellor under Senusret III, (Stela) Imhotep High official under of Djoser (3rd dynasty), later deified. Intef, Antef, Inyotef Pharaohs of the 11th dynasty IP Intermediary Period Ipet see harem Isfet disorder, chaos, opposed to Maat Isis, Auset, Aset, Ast Goddess of fertility and nature, consort of Osiris. Identified with Demeter and Aphrodite Iteru (jtrw) 1) River-unit, measure of length, 20000 cubits, ca. 10 km, Greek skhoine 2) ca. 2km according to Breasted 3) River, Nile Ithyphallic (from Greek ithuphallicos) Having an erect penis, a sign of fertility (depictions of ba-birds, Osiris, Min or Amen, etc)

Judgment of the Dead Decision by the gods on the afterlife of a person Justified maa-kheru, lit. True of voice, dead person judged favourably

Ka Immortal part of a being, but needing nourishment, coming into existence together with the being: the “life force”, continuity of existence. Cf. Body and Soul. To go to his ka: to die Kadashman Enlil King of Babylon, contemporary of Amenhotep III Kadesh, Kedesh, Qadesh 1) Fortified town in Retenu, site of famous battle 2) Goddess Kagemni 1) Vizier under Snefru, author of the Instructions of Kagemni 2) Vizier under Teti (6th dynasty) with famous mastaba Kahun, Lahun, Illahun (Arabic) Middle Kingdom planned town near the site of Hotep Senusret Kambyses see Cambyses Kamutef Lit. ‘Bull of his Mother’. Name of the ithyphallic, self-created Amen and Min Kanofer Architect under Khasekhemwy (2nd dynasty), speculatively Imhotep’s father Karnak, Al Karnak (Arabic) modern village, occupying the northern half of pharaonic Thebes, Ipet isut, the site of many ancient temples Kawab Son of Khufu (4th dynasty) Keftiu described as a place in the midst of the Great Green, i.e. the Mediterranean, possibly Crete, sometimes identified with Cyprus or with the whole of the Aegean Kemet (km.t) The black (land) The fertile soil of the Nile flood plain Egypt which is also called the Two Lands Kenbet (qnb.t) Judicial commission or court Kezweden, Kizzuwadna Hurrian vassal state of the Hittites in southern Anatolia Khafre, Chafre, Chefren Old Kingdom Pharaoh, 4th dynasty Khaemwaset Son of Ramses II, high priest of Ptah Khamudi, Chamudi, Apepi II Hyksos king Khar (XAr) Lit. sack, measure of capacity 1) Deka-heqat, 10 heqat, ca.48 litres. (OK, MK) 2) Deka-heqat, khar, equals 4 oipe, i.e. 16 heqat, ca. 96 litres (MK-SIP) 3) Khar, 4 oipe, 76 litres (NK-TIP) Kheker sign (Xkr) architectural decoration Khekheperre-sonbu Priest (Admonitions) Khentamenti, Khenty-Imentiu, Chontamenti see Anubis, also Osiris Kheops see Khufu Khepresh, Kheperesh (xprS) The blue crown Khet (xt), khet-en-nu Linear measure, 100 cubits, about 50 metres Kheta see Hatti Kheti, Akhtoy A number of kings ruling at Heracleopolis during the First Intermediate Period A number of nomarchs during the First Intermediate Period:
1) Kheti son of Tefibi (inscription)
2) Kheti son of Sit (inscription) Khnumhotep, Khnumhotpe 1) Khnumhotep I, nomarch (Inscription) 2) Khnumhotep II, grandson of Khnumhotep I, nomarch (Inscription) Khons, Khonsu 1) Moon God, son of Amen and Mut, his main temple was at Karnak 2) Called To: First prophet of Menkheperra under Ramses II Khufu, Cheops Old Kingdom Pharaoh, 4th dynasty Kiosk (from French kiosque, Turkish kösk) A roof supported by columns or poles Kit, kite, qite, (qd.t) weight, one tenth of a deben, about 9 grammes (during the New Kingdom) Greek period: monetary unit worth one tenth of a deben = 2 drachmas Kohl (fom Arabic kuhl ) Black eyeliner (cf. Cosmetics) Kubna, Gepen Egyptian name for Byblos Kush, Kash Nubian region above the second cataract KV Used by archaeologists together with a number to identify tombs in the Valley of the Kings

Labayu Ruler of Shechem, contemporary of Akhenaten (cf. Amarna Letters) Lector priest Priest reading ritual texts Libu, Ribu Libyans Lesonis Greek for Egyptian mr-Sn, an elected official in charge of the economic management of a temple LP Late Period L.P.H. Life, prosperity, health (anx wDA snb) [1] – Wish for well-being, added after the names of pharaohs, “prosperity” should rather be “soundness” Luxor (Arabic el Uksor) modern village, occupying the southern half of ancient Thebes, Ipet resyt

Ma see Meshwesh Maa-kheru (mAa-xrw ) True of voice, justified. Used for 1) the winning party in a trial, 2) the dead whose heart weighed less than a feather Maat, Ma’at, Mayet (maA.t) Goddess of Truth the world order, justice, proper conduct. Mafdet Goddess, symbolizing judicial authority and the execution apparatus Mammisi (Coptic) lit. House of Birth, sanctuary attached to a temple dedicated to the birth of the child deity of a triad Mastaba (Arabic mastaba, bench) Old Kingdom, underground tomb with above ground structure Maziqda 38 hin, about 19 litres Medjay Nubian mercenaries since the First Intermediary Period, police under Ahmose I and his successors Megiddo Important Canaanite town, site of battle Meh-ta (mH-tA) Area measure, 100 cubits squared, ca.27 m², New Kingdom Memphis (Greek), Mennefer, Mof Old Kingdom capital of Egypt (near Cairo) Menat (mnj.t) 1) Musical instrument, castanet 2) Broad collar or necklace, attribute of Hathor Men, Menes, Min First pharaoh of the united kingdom according to Herodotus, identified as Hor-aha Menkaure, Mykerinos Old Kingdom Pharaoh, 4th dynasty Menkheperreseneb High priest of Amon at Karnak, 18th dynasty Mentuhotep, Montuhotep 4 pharaohs of the 11th dynasty Mereruka vizier under Teti (6th dynasty), successor of Kagemni Meryre, Pepi I, Pepy I Old Kingdom pharaoh, 6th dynasty Meryt-Amen Daughter of Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, wife of Smenkhkare(?) Meskhenet Goddess personification of the birthing stone, two bricks placed under the feet of the woman giving birth in a crouching position Meshwesh (mSwS), Ma Libyans settled in the Delta during the Third Intermediary Period, mercenaries Metjen Official under Snofru (Biography) Min Fertility god Pharaoh, see Menes Mitanni Hurrian people living in Naharin (western Mesopotamia), disappeared as an independent nation during the Egyptian New Kingdom MK Middle Kingdom Moeris, Moiris 1) possibly Amenemhet III. 2) Lake Moeris – lake in the Fayum excavated according to Herodotus by Moeris Montu, Mont War god Montuhotep see Mentuhotep Mut 1) Mother goddess, often equated with Isis 2) Deceased with often malicious intentions

Nagada, Naqada Settlement 30 km northwest of Thebes. Name for predynastic periods from 3550 to 2600 BCE Naharin, Naharina Region in Syria or Lebanon, at times identified with Aram Naharaim, the region between western Tigris and the Euphrates, at others with the region between the Litani and the Orontes. Naos (Greek naos, temple) The sanctuary with the divine statues Narmer King, thought by many to be the uniter of Upper and Lower Egypt Natron (from Spanish, originally Greek) Carbonate salt mixture used in mummifying, found at Wadi Natrun Naucratis, Naukratis (Greek) Ionian city in the Delta Nebamen, Nebamon, Nebamun Chief of police in western Thebes under Thutmose IV and Amenhoteop III Superintendent of the grain stores under Thutmose III (cf. Abbott papyrus) Nebwawi High Priest of Osiris under Thutmose III (Inscription) Necho, Neco, Necos, Nekhau Two pharaohs of the Late Dynastic Period, 26th dynasty Necropolis (Greek) Greek lit. City of the dead, cemetery Nefer (nfr) Amulet made of gold, good luck charm Neferkare, Pepi II, Pepy II Old Kingdom pharaoh, 6th dynasty Nefertari, Nefertari-Mery-Mut Main wife of Ramses II Nefertiti, Nefertete, Nofretete Wife of Akhenaten Neferty Prophet Neheh (nHH) Eternity, perpetual renewal of cycles, as opposed to djet Nehes see Nubia Nekhakha (nxx) see flagellum Nekhbet Goddess of Upper Egypt represented in the form of a vulture Nekhekh (nxx) see flagellum Nekhen, Hierakonpolis Ancient southern capital Nephthys, Nepthys, Nebt-Het Goddess, wife of Seth Neshmet (nSm.t) The barque of Osiris Nilometer Place, generally with column, where the height of the Nile could be measured Nitocris, Nitokris daughter of Psammetic I, 26th dynasty, Wife of the God Amen NK New Kingdom Nomarch (Greek) Ruler of a nome Nome (from Greek nomos division) Administrative region Nub (nb) Gold Nubia, Wawat Region above the first cataract, occupied by Egypt during the 2nd Millennium BCE Nun Primordial god of water and fertility, depicted as a green or blue man Nut Goddess of the sky

Obol Greek coin, one sixth of a drachma, divided into 8 chalkoi Ogdoad (from Latin, Greek for eight) The eight primeval gods of creation: Nun and Naunet, Kuk and Kauket, Huh and Hauhet, Amen and Amaunet Oipe (jp.t) Measure of capacity, 4 heqat, about 20 litres (NK to Roman times) OK Old Kingdom On, Heliopolis (Greek) Main temple of the sun god Re Opening of the Mouth ceremony performed for a deceased person Osiris, Asr, Ausar God of Duat, consort of Isis. Equated with the Greek Dionysos Ostracon, Ostrakon (Greek) a pottery sherd used for writing or sketching on, plural ostraka

Pabi Ruler of Lachish, contemporary of Akhenaten Paramoné (Greek) In the Hellenist culture the obligation of a freed slave to perform services for his former master Paser 1) Viceroy under Ay and Horemheb 2) Mayor and vizier under Sethi I and Ramses II Pectoral (Latin) Piece of jewellery covering upper chest Pelusiac, Pelusian (from Greek) The easternmost arm of the Nile, named after the town Pelusium Pediese, Petiese, Pediaset A number of Late Period priests, cf. The Petition of Pediese Pepi Two Old Kingdom pharaohs, 6th dynasty: 1) Pepi I, Pepy I, Meryre 2) Pepi II, Pepy II, Neferkare, Son of Pepi I Peleset One of the Sea Peoples, the Philistines, settled in Canaan Peret, Pert, Proit (pr.t) Season of Growth, from mid November to mid March in Ptolemaic times Pesesh-kaf (psS-kf) Ceremonial instrument used in the Opening of the Mouth Ceremony Pharaoh (via Greek and Hebrew (par’oh) from Egyptian pr-aA – ‘Great House’) Since the first millennium BCE king of Egypt, Phoenix (Greek), Bennu bird Mythological bird (see Bestiary) Piankhi, Piye Pharaoh of the Late Dynastic Period, 25th dynasty Pre-dynastic, predynastic Prehistoric period, 5500 to 3050 BCE Prehirwonnef Son of Ramesses II and Queen Nefertari, served in the army Pronaos (from Greek) Room leading to the naos Proto-dynastic, protodynastic Period 3200 to 3050, also called Late Gerzean Prophet (from Greek) Hm nTr, lit. servant of the god, Head priest Psammetichos, Psammetic, Psamtek, Psamtik Three pharaohs, 26th dynasty Pseudoepigrapha (Greek) Writings of a later date than purported, often attributed to an ancient authority like a pharaoh Pshent the double crown of the united Egypt Ptach, Ptah Creator god, Hephaestos to the Greeks Ptahhotep vizier under Djedkare (5th dynasty), putative author of instructions of wisdom Punt Apparently a region in the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia and/or southern Arabia. At times identified with God’s Land. Pylon Massive structure at the entrance of a temple complex Pyramid texts Texts written inside pyramids concerning the afterlife of the deceased Pyramidion (from Greek) Capstone of a pyramid

Qa’a Last pharaoh of the first dynasty Qa’a High-roofed reception room in Egyptian houses (see The House of Djehutinefer ) Qadesh see Kadesh Qebehsenuef, Kebhsenuf etc One of the four sons of Horus Qenbet (qnb.t) Judicial court Qoseir, Quseir Port on the Red Sea coast

Ra see Re Rameses, Ramesis, Ramesses, Ramses, Ramsis 11 pharaohs reigning during the New Kingdom, 19th and 20th dynasty Ramose 1) Vizier under Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV 2) Vizier under Ramses II Re, Ra Sun god, Helios to the Greeks, with the cult centre at Heliopolis Red crown Deshret (dSr.t), the crown of Lower Egypt Rekhmire Mayor and vizier under Thutmose III and Amenhotep II, famous tomb (Regulation laid upon the vizier) Remen (rmn) 1) Square measure, ½ Ta, divided into two heseb 2) Linear measure. above all as Double remen, divided into 40 digits – almost 75 cm 3) Linear measure. 50 cubits Rensi governor, possibly fictional, mentioned in the story of the Eloquent Peasant Retenu, Rezenu The region occupied today by Syria, Lebanon and northern Israel Rib-Addi Ruler of Byblos, contemporary of Akhenaten Rosetau, Rasetjau Place in the Afterlife, the Underworld, realm of Sokar

Sabgu The planet Mercury Sah (sAH) The constellation of Orion, associated with Osiris Sakkara, Saqqara Burial ground near Memphis Sarcophagus (Greek sarx + phagos, flesh eating) Stone coffin Sau Apotropaic amulet Scarab 1) Dung beetle 2) Amulet in the form of a dung beetle Sebakhin, Sebbakhin (Arabic) Decayed mud brick used as fertilizer by modern fellahin Sechmet, Sekhmet Goddess of love and protection, cf. Hathor Sed Festival, Heb Sed (Hb-sd) Celebration of the 30th anniversary of a pharaoh’s rule, sometimes celebrated after a shorter time period Senet (zn.t) Board game Seniu (sniw, until the New Kingdom Sna) Weight, one twelfth of a deben, 7.6 grammes (New Kingdom) Senmut, Senemut Minister and favourite of Queen Hatshepsut Senusert, Senusret, Senwosret, Sesostris Three Middle Kingdom pharaohs, 12th dynasty Serdab (cellar in Arabic) Old Kingdom underground funerary chapel with a statue of the deceased, contains small openings possibly to enable the ka to participate in the prayers and sacrifices. Serekh (srx) Written symbol of kingship in the shape of a palace (see the Narmer Palette) Serpopards (from Greek) Long-necked chimaera of Mesopotamian origin Seshat Goddess, her name means ‘female scribe’. Perhaps a form of Nephthys Set, Seth God of chaos, brother of Osiris Setau Viceroy of Kush under Ramses II Setchat, stat (sTAt) Square measure, 100 cubits squared, 2500 sqm Greek aroura Setep (stp) Ceremonial instrument used in the Opening of the Mouth Ceremony Shabti, Shawabti (?) (mainly New Kingdom), Ushabti (mainly Late Period) Mummyform statuette of the deceased placed since the Middle Kingdom in tombs to do manual labour Shaddoof, Shadoof, Shaduf, Shadouf (Arabic) Contraption for raising water manually Shawabti (Swb.tj) see shabti Shechem, Shekhem, Sichem (Semitic) Town in Canaan (Palestine) Shemu, Shammu, Shamu (Smw) The season of harvest, mid March to mid July in Ptolemaic times Shena (Sna) see seniu Shepseskaf King (4th dynasty), son of Menkaure Sheshonk, Sheshonq 5 pharaohs reigning during the 3rd Intermediate Period, 22th and 23th dynasty Shu God, often identified with Heracles by the Greeks Shuwardata Ruler of Keilah, contemporary of Akhenaten Sile Town on the eastern border of the Delta (Tell Abu Seify), possibly identical with Zaru SIP Second Intermediate Period Sistrum, Seistron Musical instrument, rattle Snefru, Sneferu, Snofru Old Kingdom Pharaoh, 4th dynasty Solar boat,

barque Boat used by the sun god to cross the sky Sopdet (spd.t), Greek Sothis Goddess, embodiment of the star Sirius Speos (Greek for ‘cave’) Temple cut into rock Sphinx (Greek) Statue with lion’s body and human or animal head Stat (sTA.t) see Setchat Stater Also tetradrachma, Greek 4 drachma coin Stela, stele (plural stelae or steles) (from Greek) Monumental stone slab with carvings

Ta (tA) Old Kingdom area measure 10 cubits by 10 cubits, ca. 27 m² Tadu-heba, Tadukhipa Daughter of Tushratta, married to Amenhotep III Talatat (from Arabic for three) Small stone blocks used in temple walls Talent 60 minas at 100 drachmas each, 6000 drachmas Tamilat see Tumilat Tauret, Taweret, Tauwret fertility goddess Tefnut Goddess of dew and rain Tehenu, Tehennu, Ta-Seti People living in the Sahara, Libyans Tehuti see Thoth Temenos (Greek) Enclosure adjacent to or surrounding a temple etc Tet (tj.t), cf. Tyet Teti 6th dynasty pharaoh Thebes, No, Waset, Wese New Kingdom capital of Egypt, centre of the Amen cult Thoth, Thot, Toth, Tehuti, Djehuti God of wisdom, his main temple was at Hermopolis, Hermes Trismegistus to the Greeks Thuthmose, Thutmose, Thutmosis, Tuthmosis 1) Four New Kingdom pharaohs, 18th dynasty 2) Famous artist active under Akhenaten (Bust of Nefertiti) TIP Third Intermediate Period Tiye Wife of Amenhotep III, daughter of Yuya and Tuyu, mother of Akhenaten Triad (from Greek ‘trias’ for three) Three related gods – the Theban Triad, the Triad of Abydos, the Triad of Memphis TT Theban Tomb, together with a number used by archaeologists to identify ancient tombs at Thebes Tumilat, Tamilat Wadi connecting the easternmost arm of the Nile to the Bitter Lakes Tushratta King of Mitanni, first half of the 14th century BCE Tutanchamen, Tutanchamun, Tutankhamen, Tutankhaten, Tutankhamun New Kingdom pharaoh, 18th dynasty Two lands The united land of Upper and Lower Egypt, since the New Kingdom also referred to as Kemet Tyet, Tet, The Blood of Isis, The Buckle of Isis Symbol associated with Isis, amulet made of red semi-precious stone

Uat. Uto Goddess identified with the Greek Leto, her centre of worship was Buto Ubasti see Bast Udjat, Wedjat (wAD.t) The eye of Horus, amulet Unas, Weni, Wenis Old Kingdom pharaoh, 5th dynasty Uni see Weni Upuaut, Wepwawet Guardian god in the shape of a canine Uraeus (from Greek, from Egyptian jAr.t ) Symbolic cobra, part of the headdress of pharaohs and gods. Userkaf First king of the fifth dynasty Usertesen See Senusret Ushabti see shabti

Valley of the Kings Pharaonic burial site near Thebes during the New Kingdom, modern name for ancient “The Great and Majestic Necropolis of the Millions of Years of the Pharaoh, L.P.H., in the West of Thebes” or “The Great Field” Valley of the Queens Burial site of queens near Thebes Vizier (from Arabic wazeer) Egyptian tjati, the Arabic word for the chief minister, generally used in the context of pharaonic Egypt Voussoir (French from Latin volsorium) Wedge shaped stone used for building arches

Wadjet (wAD.t), also wedjat, uzat Lunar eye of Horus. The uraeus of Re. Often used in amulet form to protect from the evil eye Was sceptre (wAs) Symbol of well-being and happiness Waset, Wese see Thebes Wawat see Nubia Wedjahorresnet Physician, Persian period Wenamen, Wenamun, Wen-Amun, Wen-Amen, Wen-amen 20th dynasty priest sent to Byblos to buy timber Weni, Wenis see Unas Weni, Uni 6th dynasty official, governor of Upper Egypt, served under a number of pharaohs Wepwawet Upuaut White crown the crown of Upper Egypt

Xerxes Persian king and pharaoh of Egypt (585-546 BCE)

Yarsu Syrian, sometimes identified with Merneptah Siptah’s chancellor Bay.(19th dynasty) Yuya high official under Thutmose IV, husband of Tuyu

Zaphnathpaaneah, Zaphnath-paaneah according to the bible the Egyptian name of Joseph Zaru, Thalu, Tjaru A town in the Delta on the eastern frontier, possibly identical with Sile Zoser see Djoser


Define

The Baked Bean Museum of Excellence is a private museum located in Port Talbot, Wales, United Kingdom.

The baked bean sandwich is a sandwich composed of baked beans between two slices of bread, which may include garnishes such as lettuce and toppings such as mayonnaise or ketchup.

Baked beans is a dish traditionally containing white beans that are parboiled and then, in the US, baked in sauce at low temperature for a lengthy period. In the United Kingdom, the dish is sometimes baked, but usually stewed in sauce. Canned baked beans are not baked, but are cooked through a steam process.

Baked beans is a dish traditionally containing white beans that are parboiled and then, in the US, baked in sauce at low temperature for a lengthy period. In the United Kingdom, the dish is sometimes baked, but usually stewed in sauce. Canned baked beans are not baked, but are cooked through a steam process.

Cheetos is a brand of cheese puff snack made by Frito-Lay, a subsidiary of PepsiCo. Fritos creator Charles Elmer Doolin invented Cheetos in 1948, and began national distribution in the U.S. The initial success of Cheetos was a contributing factor to the merger between The Frito Company and H.W. Lay & Company in 1961 to form Frito-Lay. In 1965 Frito-Lay became a subsidiary of The Pepsi-Cola Company, forming PepsiCo, the current owner of the Cheetos brand.

Flounders are a group of flatfish species. They are demersal fish, found at the bottom of oceans around the world some species will also enter estuaries.

The Albanian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of the Mediterranean. It is also an example of the Mediterranean diet based on the importance of olive oil, fruits, vegetables and fish. The cooking traditions of the Albanian people are diverse in consequence of the environmental factors that are more importantly suitable for the cultivation of nearly every kind of herbs, vegetables and fruits. Olive oil is the most ancient and commonly used vegetable fat in Albanian cooking, produced since antiquity throughout the country particularly along the coasts.

There is a variety of baked pasta dishes, also called by their Italian name, pasta al forno:

A baked potato, known in some parts of the United Kingdom as a jacket potato, is a preparation of potato. The ideal baked potato has a fluffy interior and a crispy skin. It may be served with fillings, toppings or condiments such as butter, cheese, sour cream, gravy, baked beans, and even ground meat or corned beef.

Matthew Richard Lucas is an English actor, comedian, writer, and television personality. He is best known for his work with David Walliams on the BBC sketch comedy series Rock Profile, Little Britain, and Come Fly With Me (2010�). Lucas played the role of Nardole in the BBC series Doctor Who (2015�), and has also appeared in films, such as The Infidel (2010), Alice in Wonderland (2010), Bridesmaids (2011), and Small Apartments (2012). In 2020, he became the co-presenter of The Great British Bake Off, alongside Noel Fielding.

Salmon is a common food fish classified as an oily fish with a rich content of protein and omega-3 fatty acids. In Norway – a major producer of farmed and wild salmon – farmed and wild salmon differ only slightly in terms of food quality and safety, with farmed salmon having lower content of environmental contaminants, and wild salmon having higher content of omega-3 fatty acids.

Beggar's chicken is a Chinese dish of chicken that is stuffed, wrapped in clay and lotus leaves, and baked slowly using low heat. Preparation of a single portion may take up to six hours. Although the dish is traditionally prepared with clay, the recipe has evolved for convenience and safety it is often baked with dough, oven bags, ceramic cooking pots, or convection ovens.

Baked Alaska, also known as omelette norvégienne, omelette surprise, or omelette sibérienne depending on the country, is a dessert consisting of ice cream and cake topped with browned meringue. The dish is made of ice cream placed in a pie dish, lined with slices of sponge cake or Christmas pudding, and topped with meringue. The entire dessert is then placed in an extremely hot oven for a brief time, long enough to firm and caramelize the meringue but not long enough to begin melting the ice cream.

Baked and Wired is a bakery and coffeehouse in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The bakery was opened in 2001 by Teresa Velazquez and specializes in baking cupcakes but also offers a wider range of other baked goods including cookies, quiches, and brownies. Velazquez did not intend to open a cupcake shop, but the demand for the baked good eclipsed the other offerings.

A cooking apple or culinary apple is an apple that is used primarily for cooking, as opposed to a dessert apple, which is eaten raw. Cooking apples are generally larger, and can be tarter than dessert varieties. Some varieties have a firm flesh that does not break down much when cooked. Culinary varieties with a high acid content produce froth when cooked, which is desirable for some recipes. Britain grows a large range of apples specifically for cooking. Worldwide, dual-purpose varieties are more widely grown.

Baked beans is a dish traditionally containing white beans that are parboiled and then, in the US, baked in sauce at low temperature for a lengthy period. In the United Kingdom, the dish is sometimes baked, but usually stewed in sauce. Canned baked beans are not baked, but are cooked through a steam process.

The baked bean sandwich is a sandwich composed of baked beans between two slices of bread, which may include garnishes such as lettuce and toppings such as mayonnaise or ketchup.

Baked beans is a dish traditionally containing white beans that are parboiled and then, in the US, baked in sauce at low temperature for a lengthy period. In the United Kingdom, the dish is sometimes baked, but usually stewed in sauce. Canned baked beans are not baked, but are cooked through a steam process.

Baked beans is a dish traditionally containing white beans that are parboiled and then, in the US, baked in sauce at low temperature for a lengthy period. In the United Kingdom, the dish is sometimes baked, but usually stewed in sauce. Canned baked beans are not baked, but are cooked through a steam process.

A brick is a type of block used to build walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction. Properly, the term brick denotes a block composed of dried clay, but is now also used informally to denote other chemically cured construction blocks. Bricks can be joined together using mortar, adhesives or by interlocking them. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types, materials, and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities.

Baked by Melissa is a chain of bakeries founded by Melissa Ben-Ishay in 2008, specializing in miniature cupcakes. As of 2018, Baked by Melissa has 14 locations in the New York City metropolitan area.

Stuffed clams are popular in New England, especially in Rhode Island, and consist of a breadcrumb and minced clam mixture that is baked on the half shell of a quahog hard shell clam. Other ingredients typically found in the basic breadcrumb mixture are: meat such as sausage, bacon or chouriço, chili pepper, lemon juice, bell peppers, celery, onion, garlic, spices and herbs. There are many different recipes for stuffed clams many restaurants in New England have their own variety, as do many home cooks.

Bánh bò is a sweet, chewy sponge cake from Vietnam. It is made from rice flour, water, sugar, and yeast, and has a honeycomb-like appearance on the inside due to the presence of numerous small air bubbles. Coconut milk is also usually a part of the batter, imparting a slight flavor and aroma of coconut. The cake is of Southern Chinese origin, although the Chinese version, called bái táng gāo (白糖糕), does not contain coconut milk. Bánh bò are generally eaten as a dessert, although they may also be consumed as an accompaniment to a meal.

Shirred eggs, also known as baked eggs, are eggs that have been baked in a flat-bottomed dish the name originates from the type of dish in which it was traditionally baked. Shirred eggs are considered a simple and reliable dish that can be easily varied and expanded upon. An alternative way of cooking is to crack the eggs into individual ramekins, and cook them in a water bath, creating the French dish œufs en cocotte.

Shirred eggs, also known as baked eggs, are eggs that have been baked in a flat-bottomed dish the name originates from the type of dish in which it was traditionally baked. Shirred eggs are considered a simple and reliable dish that can be easily varied and expanded upon. An alternative way of cooking is to crack the eggs into individual ramekins, and cook them in a water bath, creating the French dish œufs en cocotte.

Israeli couscous, also known as pearl couscous, Jerusalem couscous, or Ptitim, is toasted pasta in tiny balls, developed in Israel in the 1950s when rice was scarce due to austerity in Israel. Despite the name, it is not a type of couscous.

Flounders are a group of flatfish species. They are demersal fish, found at the bottom of oceans around the world some species will also enter estuaries.

Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their center. As heat travels through, it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods and more with a firm dry crust and a softer center". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit.

Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their center. As heat travels through, it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods and more with a firm dry crust and a softer center". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit.

The Albanian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of the Mediterranean. It is also an example of the Mediterranean diet based on the importance of olive oil, fruits, vegetables and fish. The cooking traditions of the Albanian people are diverse in consequence of the environmental factors that are more importantly suitable for the cultivation of nearly every kind of herbs, vegetables and fruits. Olive oil is the most ancient and commonly used vegetable fat in Albanian cooking, produced since antiquity throughout the country particularly along the coasts.

Macaroni and cheese—also called mac 'n' cheese in the United States, and macaroni cheese in the United Kingdom—is a dish of cooked macaroni pasta and a cheese sauce, most commonly cheddar. It can also incorporate other ingredients, such as breadcrumbs or meat.

Macaroni and cheese—also called mac 'n' cheese in the United States, and macaroni cheese in the United Kingdom—is a dish of cooked macaroni pasta and a cheese sauce, most commonly cheddar. It can also incorporate other ingredients, such as breadcrumbs or meat.

Baked milk is a variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. It is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer.

Penne is an extruded type of pasta with cylinder-shaped pieces, their ends cut at a bias. Penne is the plural form of the Italian penna, deriving from Latin penna, and is a cognate of the English word pen. When this format was created, it was intended to imitate the then-ubiquitous fountain pen's steel nibs.

There is a variety of baked pasta dishes, also called by their Italian name, pasta al forno:

A baked potato, known in some parts of the United Kingdom as a jacket potato, is a preparation of potato. The ideal baked potato has a fluffy interior and a crispy skin. It may be served with fillings, toppings or condiments such as butter, cheese, sour cream, gravy, baked beans, and even ground meat or corned beef.

A baked potato, known in some parts of the United Kingdom as a jacket potato, is a preparation of potato. The ideal baked potato has a fluffy interior and a crispy skin. It may be served with fillings, toppings or condiments such as butter, cheese, sour cream, gravy, baked beans, and even ground meat or corned beef.

Baked ziti is a popular casserole with ziti pasta and a Neapolitan-style tomato-based sauce characteristic of Italian-American cuisine. It is a form of pasta al forno.

Bake-danuki (化け狸) are a kind of yōkai found in the classics and in the folklore and legends of various places in Japan, commonly associated with the Japanese raccoon dog or tanuki.

Deshamanya Marhoom Al Haj Mohammed Abdul Bakeer Markar was a Sri Lankan politician. He was the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka and Governor of the Southern Province.

BakéGyamon is a Japanese manga and anime series, with its concept created by Kazuhiro Fujita. The manga series, written and illustrated by Mitsuhisa Tamura, was published in Shogakukan's Weekly Shōnen Sunday from March 2006 to April 2007, with its chapters collected in five tankōbon volumes. In North America, Viz Media published it in English in 2009.

BakéGyamon is a Japanese manga and anime series, with its concept created by Kazuhiro Fujita. The manga series, written and illustrated by Mitsuhisa Tamura, was published in Shogakukan's Weekly Shōnen Sunday from March 2006 to April 2007, with its chapters collected in five tankōbon volumes. In North America, Viz Media published it in English in 2009.

Bak is a village in Jolgeh-e Mazhan Rural District, Jolgeh-e Mazhan District, Khusf County, South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 20, in 5 families.

A bakery is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cookies, cakes, pastries, and pies. Some retail bakeries are also categorized as cafés, serving coffee and tea to customers who wish to consume the baked goods on the premises. Confectionery items are also made in most bakeries throughout the world.

The Bakehouse is a historical bakehouse in Dirmstein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, designated as an item of the cultural heritage.

A bakehouse is a building for baking bread. The term may be used interchangeably with the term "bakery", although the latter commonly includes both production and retail areas.

Bakehouse may refer to:

  • Bakery
  • Bakehouse (building)
  • Bakehouse (Dirmstein), a cultural heritage bakehouse in Dirmstein, Germany

A bakery is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cookies, cakes, pastries, and pies. Some retail bakeries are also categorized as cafés, serving coffee and tea to customers who wish to consume the baked goods on the premises. Confectionery items are also made in most bakeries throughout the world.

Shigeru Mizuki was a Japanese manga artist and historian, best known for his manga series GeGeGe no Kitarō. Born in a hospital in Osaka and raised in the city of Sakaiminato, Tottori, he later moved to Chōfu, Tokyo where he remained until his death. His pen-name, Mizuki, comes from the time when he managed an inn called 'Mizuki Manor' while he drew pictures for kamishibai. A specialist in stories of Yōkai, he is considered a master of the genre. Mizuki was also a noted historian, publishing works relating to world history, Japanese history, and his own World War II experience.

Shigeru Mizuki was a Japanese manga artist and historian, best known for his manga series GeGeGe no Kitarō. Born in a hospital in Osaka and raised in the city of Sakaiminato, Tottori, he later moved to Chōfu, Tokyo where he remained until his death. His pen-name, Mizuki, comes from the time when he managed an inn called 'Mizuki Manor' while he drew pictures for kamishibai. A specialist in stories of Yōkai, he is considered a master of the genre. Mizuki was also a noted historian, publishing works relating to world history, Japanese history, and his own World War II experience.

Gaafu Alifu is an administrative division of the Maldives created on February 8 1962, when Huvadhu Atoll was divided into two districts. Gaafu Alifu corresponds to the northeastern section of this large natural atoll north of the line extending between the channels of Footukandu and Vaarulu Kandu. The capital of this district is Vilingili.

Bakekang is a Philippine television drama series broadcast by GMA Network. The series is based on a Philippine graphic novel by Carlo J. Caparas. Directed by Gil Tejada Jr. and Khryss Adalia, it stars Sunshine Dizon in the title role. It premiered on September 11, 2006 on the network's Telebabad line up replacing I Luv NY. The series concluded on March 30, 2007 with a total of 145 episodes.

Bakel is a village east of Helmond and Eindhoven in southern part of the Netherlands. The total population is approximately 5,000. Until the late 1990s it formed the municipality of Bakel and Milheeze together with Milheeze and De Rips. In 1997 Bakel merged with the larger Gemert municipality.

Bakel is a town of approximately 15,000 inhabitants located in the eastern part of Senegal, West Africa. The town is located on the left bank of the Sénégal River, 65 kilometers (40 mi) from the Malian border and linked by canoe ferry to the village of Gouraye in Mauritania.

Bakel is a village east of Helmond and Eindhoven in southern part of the Netherlands. The total population is approximately 5,000. Until the late 1990s it formed the municipality of Bakel and Milheeze together with Milheeze and De Rips. In 1997 Bakel merged with the larger Gemert municipality.

Bakel Airport is an airport serving Bakel, a town in Bakel department, Tambacounda region, Senegal.

Bakel Department is one of the 45 departments of Senegal and one of the four making up the Tambacounda Region in the east of the country. The department had an area of 22,378 km² and population estimate at 215,680 in 2005. However, in 2008 the department was split to form the new department of Goudiry, so the area was reduced to estimated 6,290 km².

Bakel Department is one of the 45 departments of Senegal and one of the four making up the Tambacounda Region in the east of the country. The department had an area of 22,378 km² and population estimate at 215,680 in 2005. However, in 2008 the department was split to form the new department of Goudiry, so the area was reduced to estimated 6,290 km².

Bekal Fort was built by Shivappa Nayaka of Keladi in 1650 AD, at Bekal. It is the largest fort in Kerala, spreading over 40 acres (160,000 m 2 ).

Bakel en Milheeze is a former municipality in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It consisted of the villages Bakel, Milheeze, and De Rips. It has been a part of the municipality of Gemert-Bakel since 1997.

Bakel en Milheeze is a former municipality in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It consisted of the villages Bakel, Milheeze, and De Rips. It has been a part of the municipality of Gemert-Bakel since 1997.

Bakel en Milheeze is a former municipality in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It consisted of the villages Bakel, Milheeze, and De Rips. It has been a part of the municipality of Gemert-Bakel since 1997.

Qalyub orthonairovirus, also known as Qalyub nairovirus or simply Qalyub virus, is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus discovered in a rat's nest in a tomb wall in the Egyptian town of Qalyub in 1952. The primary vector for transmission is the Carios erraticus tick, and thus it is an arbovirus.

Ba'kelalan is a group of nine villages at Maligan Highlands of Limbang Division, Sarawak, Malaysia about 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level and 4 km from the border with Indonesian Kalimantan and 150 km from the nearest town of Lawas. There are nine villages in Ba'kelalan. The villagers here belong to the Lun Bawang tribe.

Ba'kelalan Airport is an airport in Ba'kelalan, a town in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia.

Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Used as the basis for Bakelite, PFs were the first commercial synthetic resins (plastics). They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. They were at one time the primary material used for the production of circuit boards but have been largely replaced with epoxy resins and fiberglass cloth, as with fire-resistant FR-4 circuit board materials.

Jan Bakelants is a Belgian professional road racing cyclist, who currently rides for UCI WorldTeam Intermarché–Wanty–Gobert Matériaux.

The Bakelberg, at 18 metres above sea level, is the highest point on Fischland. It is in the municipality of Ahrenshoop in the county of Vorpommern-Rügen in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

The Kele people are an ethnic group in Gabon with an estimated population of 10,774.

Bakelite or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907.

Hexion Inc. or Hexion is a chemical company based in Columbus, Ohio. It produces thermoset resins and related technologies and specialty products.

The Bakelite Museum is a collection of Bakelite and other articles belonging to Patrick Cook that currently is without a home.

A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing. It is used when initiating a telephone call to transmit the destination telephone number to a telephone exchange.

A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing. It is used when initiating a telephone call to transmit the destination telephone number to a telephone exchange.

Kees Bakels is a Dutch conductor.

Bakelse-Jeanna (1702�), was a Swedish pastry-seller, the name signifying "Pastry-Jeanna". She was a well known and distinctive character in Stockholm at that time, and often used as a figure within Swedish plays, songs and literature during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Obake (お化け) and bakemono (化け物) are a class of yōkai, preternatural creatures in Japanese folklore. Literally, the terms mean a thing that changes, referring to a state of transformation or shapeshifting.

The Boy and the Beast is a 2015 Japanese animated action-adventure fantasy film written and directed by Mamoru Hosoda. The film stars the voices of Kōji Yakusho, Aoi Miyazaki, Shōta Sometani, Suzu Hirose, Kazuhiro Yamaji, Mamoru Miyano, Kappei Yamaguchi, Keishi Nagatsuka, Kumiko Asō, Haru Kuroki, Sumire Morohoshi, Momoka Ōno, Masahiko Tsugawa, Lily Franky and Yo Oizumi. It was released on July 11, 2015. It won Animation of the Year at the 37th Japan Academy Prizes and grossed ٷ.85 billion at the Japanese box office.

Bakemono no e, also known by its alternate title Bakemonozukushie, is a Japanese handscroll of the Edo period depicting 35 bakemono from Japanese folklore. The figures are hand-painted on paper in vivid pigments with accents in gold pigment. Each bakemono is labeled with its name in hand-brushed ink. There is no other writing on the scroll, no colophon, and no artist's signature or seal.

Monogatari is a Japanese light novel series written by Nisio Isin and illustrated by Vofan. It centers on Koyomi Araragi, a third-year high school student who survives a vampire attack and finds himself helping girls involved with a variety of apparitions, deities, ghosts, beasts, spirits, and other supernatural phenomena, which often serve as proxies for their emotional and mental issues. Between November 2006 and October 2020, Kodansha published 26 volumes in the series under its Kodansha Box imprint, with plans for at least two more volumes as of October�. All of the series' story arcs share the common title suffix -monogatari (物語) .

Monogatari is a Japanese light novel series written by Nisio Isin and illustrated by Vofan. T‌heir plot centers around Koyomi Araragi, a third-year high school student who survives a vampire attack and subsequently finds himself helping girls involved with a variety of apparitions, ghosts, beasts, spirits, and other supernatural phenomena.

Monogatari is a Japanese light novel series written by Nisio Isin and illustrated by Vofan. T‌heir plot centers around Koyomi Araragi, a third-year high school student who survives a vampire attack and subsequently finds himself helping girls involved with a variety of apparitions, ghosts, beasts, spirits, and other supernatural phenomena.

Monogatari is a Japanese light novel series written by Nisio Isin and illustrated by Vofan. It centers on Koyomi Araragi, a third-year high school student who survives a vampire attack and finds himself helping girls involved with a variety of apparitions, deities, ghosts, beasts, spirits, and other supernatural phenomena, which often serve as proxies for their emotional and mental issues. Between November 2006 and October 2020, Kodansha published 26 volumes in the series under its Kodansha Box imprint, with plans for at least two more volumes as of October�. All of the series' story arcs share the common title suffix -monogatari (物語) .

Bakemono no e, also known by its alternate title Bakemonozukushie, is a Japanese handscroll of the Edo period depicting 35 bakemono from Japanese folklore. The figures are hand-painted on paper in vivid pigments with accents in gold pigment. Each bakemono is labeled with its name in hand-brushed ink. There is no other writing on the scroll, no colophon, and no artist's signature or seal.

Baken Kydykeyeva was a Kyrgyzstani actress.

Nunataks, also called glacial islands, are exposed portions of ridges, mountains, or peaks not covered with ice or snow within an ice field or glacier. Nunataks present readily identifiable landmark reference points in glaciers or ice caps and are often named. The term is derived from the Inuit word, nunataq.

The Baken diamond mine is a diamond mine located along the lower Orange River in South Africa. The mine is owned and operated by Lower Orange River Diamonds. The central processing plant has been operational at Baken since 2001.

Sideburns is a 1990 Russian comedy film directed by Yuri Mamin.

Sideburns is a 1990 Russian comedy film directed by Yuri Mamin.

The bakeneko is a type of Japanese yōkai, or supernatural creature. It is often confused with the nekomata, another cat-like yōkai. The distinction between them is often ambiguous, but the largest difference is that the Nekomata has two tails, while the Bakeneko has only one.

Ayakashi: Samurai Horror Tales, known in Japan as Ayakashi: Japanese Classic Horror , is a Japanese anime horror anthology television series produced by Toei Animation.

Båkenesdokka Valley is an ice-filled valley at the east side of Roberts Knoll, draining north to Jelbart Ice Shelf in Queen Maud Land. It was mapped by Norwegian cartographers from surveys and from air photos by the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1949󈞠) and named "Båkenesdokka".

Båkeneset Headland is an ice-covered headland, marked by Båken Nunatak near the seaward end, forming the northwest extremity of Ahlmann Ridge in Queen Maud Land. It was mapped by Norwegian cartographers from surveys and from air photos by the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition(1949󈞠), and from air photos by the Norwegian expedition (1958󈞧), and named "Båkeneset".

The Bakenesserkerk is a former church and seat of the local archeological workgroup in Haarlem, Netherlands, on the Vrouwestraat 10. Its characteristic white tower can be seen in cityscapes of Haarlem. The entrance is opposite the rear entrance to the Teylers Hofje.

The Bakeng Deuce is a parasol-wing monoplane designed in the United States in the early 1970s and marketed for homebuilding. Plans and parts were still available in 2007, although the rights have changed hands in the intervening years.

The Bakeng Deuce is a parasol-wing monoplane designed in the United States in the early 1970s and marketed for homebuilding. Plans and parts were still available in 2007, although the rights have changed hands in the intervening years.

The Bakeng Deuce is a parasol-wing monoplane designed in the United States in the early 1970s and marketed for homebuilding. Plans and parts were still available in 2007, although the rights have changed hands in the intervening years.

Bakening is a stratovolcano located in the southern part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

Bakening is a stratovolcano located in the southern part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

Bakenkhonsu was a High Priest of Amun in ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Information about his life was found on the back of his block statue. The information on the statue provides details about the education of young Egyptian noblemen at that time and the career of priests.

Bakenkhonsu was a High Priest of Amun in ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Information about his life was found on the back of his block statue. The information on the statue provides details about the education of young Egyptian noblemen at that time and the career of priests.

Bakenkhonsu was a High Priest of Amun in ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Information about his life was found on the back of his block statue. The information on the statue provides details about the education of young Egyptian noblemen at that time and the career of priests.

The Battle of Bakenlaagte occurred on 30 October 1901 during the guerrilla phase of Anglo-Boer war of 1899�. The battle saw the Eastern Transvaal Boer commandos of Generals Grobler, Brits, Viljoen and Louis Botha attack the rear guard of Colonel Benson's much feared No. 3 Flying Column while it was in marching formation to its base camp.

Bakenranef, known by the ancient Greeks as Bocchoris, was briefly a king of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Based at Sais in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. Though the Ptolemaic period Egyptian historian Manetho considers him the sole member of the Twenty-fourth dynasty, modern scholars include his father Tefnakht in that dynasty. Although Sextus Julius Africanus quotes Manetho as stating that "Bocchoris" ruled for six years, some modern scholars again differ and assign him a shorter reign of only five years, based on evidence from an Apis Bull burial stela. It establishes that Bakenranef's reign ended only at the start of his 6th regnal year which, under the Egyptian dating system, means he had a reign of 5 full years. Bakenranef's prenomen or royal name, Wahkare, means "Constant is the Spirit of Re" in Egyptian.

Bakenranef, known by the ancient Greeks as Bocchoris, was briefly a king of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Based at Sais in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. Though the Ptolemaic period Egyptian historian Manetho considers him the sole member of the Twenty-fourth dynasty, modern scholars include his father Tefnakht in that dynasty. Although Sextus Julius Africanus quotes Manetho as stating that "Bocchoris" ruled for six years, some modern scholars again differ and assign him a shorter reign of only five years, based on evidence from an Apis Bull burial stela. It establishes that Bakenranef's reign ended only at the start of his 6th regnal year which, under the Egyptian dating system, means he had a reign of 5 full years. Bakenranef's prenomen or royal name, Wahkare, means "Constant is the Spirit of Re" in Egyptian.

Bakenrenef or Bakenranef was an ancient Egyptian Vizier of the North during the reign of Psamtik I of the 26th Dynasty. Like Khaemwaset several centuries before, he bore the title of Iunmutef, "Cleaner of the Great House". His father was a mayor called Padineit, while his mother was a certain Tageb.

Bekenu is a small fishing town near Miri, in Sarawak, Malaysia. It lies approximately 477.6 kilometres (297 mi) northeast of the state capital Kuching.

A cook-off is a cooking competition where the contestants each prepare dishes for judging either by a select group of judges or by the general public. Cook-offs are very popular among competitors with very similar dishes, such as chili, and serves as a way to decide which recipe is the best for that particular dish.

Bake-out, in several areas of technology and fabrication, and in building construction, refers to the process of using high heat temperature (heat), and possibly vacuum, to remove volatile compounds from materials and objects before placing them into situations where the slow release of the same volatile compounds would contaminate the contents of a container or vessel, spoil a vacuum, or cause discomfort or illness. Bake-out is an artificial acceleration of the process of outgassing.

Bakeoven is an unincorporated community in Wasco County, in the U.S. state of Oregon. It is southeast of Maupin and northwest of Shaniko along Bakeoven Creek, a tributary of the Deschutes River.

Dédé Wilson is an American baker and cookbook author.

A baker is a tradesperson who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made of flour by using an oven or other concentrated heat source. The place where a baker works is called a bakery.

A baker is someone who primarily bakes and sells bread.

Bakers Arms is an intersection and arguably a district on the boundary of Leyton and Walthamstow, in the London Borough of Waltham Forest. It is named after a former public house which stood at the junction of High Road Leyton, Hoe Street and Lea Bridge Road (A104). The pub's name was derived from the nearby almshouses for members of London's baking trade, which were completed in 1866. The first record of a publican at the Baker's Arms was in 1868. The pub closed in 2010, and the premises now operate as a betting shop. There are several food stores, pubs and cafes, and a variety of other retail outlets.

Baker's Art Gallery was a photography studio in Columbus, Ohio from 1862�. Among those to have their portraits taken were Kyrle Bellew, William McKinley, Rutherford B. Hayes, and Annie Oakley. They also won first place at various exhibitions, including the World's Columbian Exhibition.

The Marias Massacre was a massacre of Piegan Blackfeet Indians carried out by the United States Army as part of the Indian Wars. The massacre took place on January 23, 1870, in Montana Territory. Approximately 200 Indians were killed, most of whom were women, children and elderly men.

Lawrence Township is a township in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The township is part of the New York Metropolitan area as defined by the United States Census Bureau, but directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is part of the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 33,472, reflecting an increase of 4,313 (+14.8%) from the 29,159 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,372 (+13.1%) from the 25,787 counted in the 1990 Census.


Бакенхонсу II

Бакенхонсу II (*д/н — 1172 до н. е.) — давньоєгипетський політичний діяч часів занепаду XIX й початку XX династій, верховний жрець Амона у Фівах у 1199/1197—1172 роках до н. е. за володарювання фараонів Сеті II, Саптаха, Таусерт, Сетнахта і Рамсеса III.

Походив зі фіванського жрецтва. Син Аменемопета, начальника писарів та вояків-новобранців Амона. Стосовно його предків існує декілька версій: був сином Нефертарі й онуком верховного жерця Бакенхонсу I або сином чи онуком верховного жерця Ромароя. Ім'я молодшого сина останнього невідомо, знано, що той був жерцем в якомусь храмі поблизу Фів. Тому можливо він згодом отримав посаду в самих Фівах. За ще однією версією Аменемопет був одружений на Тайбесі, яка була донькою або онукою Бакенхонсу чи Ромароя. Тому Бакенхонсу отримав своє ім'я на честь впливового предка. Тайбесі обіймала посаду священної співацки Амона.

Належність до роду Бакенсонсу I напевне сприяло стрімкій кар'єрі Бакенхонсу-молодшого. Доволі швидко став Четвертим пророком (жерцем) Амона за правління фараона Мернептаха, а при Сеті II був вже Першим пророком Амона та головою всіх пророків усіх богів Фів.

У 1199 або 1197 році до н. е. після смерті родича Ромароя стає новим верховним жерцем Амона. За період каденції Бакенхонсу II Фіванський округ остаточно перетворився на окрему територію (князівство), яке майже не контролювалося фараонами. Цьому сприяла боротьба за владу з часів Сеті II. Надалі статус і майнове становище Бакенхонсу II лише поліпшувалися.

Верховний жрець Амона підтримав сходження на трон Сетнахта, що став засновником XX династії. Натомість отримав значні права, підвладні міста та копальні. В цей час Бакенхонсу II звів у власному поминальному храмі стелу з розповіддю середньоєгипетською мовою про своє життя та діяльність. Тут вказується на незалежний статус Бакенхонсу II від влади фараона. Також розповідається про відновлення зусиллями верховного жерця храмового комплексу та самих Фів, що постраждали в період падіння XIX династії, боротьби за трон.

Бакенхонсу II намагався передати владу своєму синові Аменемопету, який був Першим пророком Амона в Луксорі, але коли верховним жрець у 1172 році до н. е. помер, його наступником став представник впливового фіванського роду Усермаатренакт.


Description

Die altägyptische Kultur hat ein reiches archäologisches Erbe an Texten und Bildern hinterlassen, deren Bedeutung sich häufig erst unter Berücksichtigung ihrer räumlichen Dimension erschliesst. Der vorliegende Band widmet sich dem Zusammenspiel textueller und visueller Perspektiven in der Analyse ägyptischer Denkmäler und deren räumlicher Verortung und greift damit einen Schwerpunkt der epigraphischen und archäologischen Forschung Susanne Bickels auf. «Text-Bild-Objekte im archäologischen Kontext» entfaltet diese Forschungsperspektive in 17 Beiträgen, vom Alten Reich bis ins 19. Jahrhundert und von Nubien bis in die Schweiz.

English abstract:

“The Poetic Structure of the Teaching of Sehetepibre”
This contribution examines the poetic structure of the short version of The Loyalist Instructions preserved in the stela inscription of Sehetepibre (Amenemhat III). The structure of this text is extraordinarily dense, while this shorter version of the text appears to be primary the longer version (or Instructions of Kairsou) appears to represent a secondary elaboration. The composition, which is wholly symmetrical, represents an extreme example of concentrism. Its poetic structure thereby draws focus to the loyalist relationship and instantiates an iconic representation of a centripetal monarchy.

On étudie la forme poétique de la version brève de l’Enseignement loyaliste, inscrite sur la stèle de Sehetepibré (temp. Amenemhat III). À qui se laisse prendre au jeu, la densité de cette forme se révèle extraordinaire. Il suit, d’abord, que cette version brève est primaire, la version longue (ou Enseignement de Kairsou) une élaboration seconde. Surtout, la composition, symétrique à tous niveaux, constitue un cas extrême de focalisation par concentrisme. La forme poétique focalise la relation loyaliste et est figuration iconique d’un ordre monarchique centripète.


References

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Watch the video: High Priest Aaron is the historical High Priest of Amun Anen of the 18th Egyptian Dynasty! (September 2022).


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