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'Mac' and 'Art' working on a B-17 Wing Panel

'Mac' and 'Art' working on a B-17 Wing Panel



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'Mac' and 'Art' working on a B-17 Wing Panel

Here we see 'Mac' and 'Art', two colleagues of Sgt Robert S. Tucker Sr, working on a B-17 wing panel at the 2nd Strategic Air Depot.

Pictures provided by Sgt. Robert S. Tucker Sr. (Member of: The American Air Museum in Britain {Duxford} ).
Robert S. WWII Photo Book, Mighty 8th. AF, Ground Crew


Piper Cherokee 180 Review: Expert Pilot

1963 Piper Cherokee 180 Photo submitted by Earl Burkholder

The World’s Easiest Flying Airplane? Evidence that the Piper Cherokee 180 may be the world’s simplest airplane to fly is more than anecdotal. Piper Cherokee 180 Review by veteran pilot Bill Cox.

Note: This review was originally written in 2015.

When the clouds hang low and the fog rolls in, my hangar in Southern California seems to attract a group of pilots who like to sit around and debate such questions as why the president needs to shut down all VFR traffic at 32 airports within 30 miles of LAX every time he visits the L.A area.

That’s obviously a question we’ll never have an answer for, but there are other pressing problems that we can at least debate logically without anyone wanting to throw something.

Recently, the hangar hangouts were curious as to the consensus on the world’s easiest-flying airplane. How you answer that question is highly subjective, depending upon what model helped guide you to the Private license. If you learned in a Skyhawk or a Cherokee, chances are, you’ll vote for that model in the debate. If your personal mentor to a pilot’s license was a taildragger, there’s a good chance you’ll swear by that type and, inevitably, decry anything with the third wheel out front.

Most of the time, however, arguments will devolve to whether you learned in a high-wing or a low-wing airplane. That debate is usually less contentious than the nosewheel/tailwheel argument. Pilots trained in high-wing machines most typically gravitate toward the same type, whereas aviators educated in low-wings tend to disdain airplanes that mount the wing above the fuselage. There were/are exceptions, of course. Pilots of high-wings tend to lose their perspective of the airport during the critical base and final turns, while low-wing advocates can see into the turns all the way around the pattern.

1966 Piper Cherokee 180 submitted by Don Desrosiers

Piper Cherokee 180 Review & History

I spent most of my early apprentice days (I’m now in my late apprentice days) flying a Champion Tri-Traveler, basically a 100-hp, tricycle-gear version of the Champ. The Tri-Traveler wasn’t a big success for Champion Aircraft. It was essentially a Champ with a nosewheel. The company sold only about 500 Tri-Travelers. Apparently, so many folks regarded the original Champ taildragger with such reverence that there wasn’t much enthusiasm for a nosegear version. The original Champ went on to fame and relative fortune in the Bellanca and later, the American Champion line.

For better or worse, someone wrecked the Tri-Traveler at my school, and I transferred to a Piper Colt, again a variation on a previous design, in this case, the Piper Tri-Pacer. I did earn my license in the Colt, then, almost immediately switched to a Cherokee 180.

The “big” 180 had a 40-inch-wide cabin up front, could carry four folks (more typically two plus two), had enough power to aviate a couple miles above sea level, and was generally a more satisfying machine to fly.

In fact, by the time I’d saved enough money to purchase a well-used Globe Swift a year after passing my checkride, I’d actually begun to appreciate the Cherokee 180’s finer talents.

The 180 and I spent probably 50 rental hours together in that first year, and since the airplane’s primary mission was to provide me with four seats that allowed me to aviate with a quartet of folks in the buckets and protect me from major evil during the landing phase, I came to respect the Cherokee 180. It was a durable little machine that always seemed willing to find another cheek to turn to the ham-handed semi-competence of a newly licensed pilot.

The Simplicity of the Piper Cherokee 180

The Cherokee 180 had the simple, rectangular, Hershey-bar wing, it had a stall that was practically undetectable, and it was about the easiest machine to land I’d ever encountered. In fact, the 180 was often criticized as having a stall that was too docile and not complying with the FAA’s aerodynamic pre-stall warning requirements.

The 180 and I, along with my wife and usually two brave friends, bounced all over California, Arizona, and Nevada, flying to air shows, hamburger joints, an occasional steak house or traveling to visit friends who acted dutifully impressed by the shiny little Piper.

For me, the Cherokee 180’s major benefit was that I couldn’t seem to make a bad landing in it – and believe me, I tried. Never seemed to have that problem in the Tri-Traveler or Colt, but the Cherokee 180 was so docile and forgiving, so willing to excuse my regular transgressions, that it always made me look good in front of my friends. That, of course, was one of the primary goals of any new pilot, a smooth landing and the chance to look like Sky King (in case anyone remembers him).


5 ways to make MT4 reconnect to broker server

Obviously, there might be several reasons to this, but before we make any assumptions and try to find out what’s the reason for MT4 losing connection to broker server, let’s look at 5 possible solutions to solve this problem.

What we are trying to do now is to re-establish a connection to the broker server.

I will assume that you were logged in and the connection was fine some time ago, but then you found it disconnected. Obviously, if you are not logged into your MT4 account you will also see this “No Connection” message, which means you simply need to connect to your account from the top menu by going to “File -> Login to Trade Account“.

1. Do “Rescan servers”.

The first thing you should try is to do “Rescan servers”. You can find this option by clicking the left-mouse button on the “No connection” label in the right-bottom corner of your MT4. Note that you need to click left mouse button. Once you run re-scan, MT4 look for the best server available and then try to connect. You can even try this several times every 30 seconds because it could be that first attempts to re-connect might be unsuccessful.

Let’s take a look how this looks like on HotForex MT4 platform.

MT4 Rescan Servers option on HotForex

You see there are lots of servers (MT4 Data Centers) available in different continents of the world. This means that MT4 automatically connects to the one that has fastest response rate. In this case, my MT4 is connected to server Europe2T1 (that’s because I am based in Europe) which response is 32 milliseconds. That’s very fast.

Most people have connection response rate of 400 ms or so, which is quite reasonable for simple trading. But if your trading strategy is vulnerable to Slippage, spreads and execution speed, then you need to connect to the fastest server possible. Usually, automated trading strategies that make a lot of trades are affected the most and speed of connection matter a lot here. We explain the impact of slippage, the speed of execution, spreads and similar things in Autotrading Academy.

You can look at this list of servers anytime you want, even when you are connected, and if there’s a need you can always choose to connect to any other server.

Also, I should mention, that your broker might not have that many servers to choose from.

MT4 option to Rescan Servers

In the picture above you see how this looks like on my MT4 trading platform. It shows only one server available named “main new”. The other server “main” is not available. But still, I can try “Rescan servers” option as this might help and make my MT4 to re-establish a connection.

MT4 usually connects to the “nearest” broker’s server available (i.e. one that has the least ping). However, it could be that if MT4 disconnects for any reason and then connects back again, it might select another server (if it’s the only server that’s working at that time), even if its ping (latency) is not good. The problem here is that MT4 might not switch back automatically to a better server once it gets back online. In that case “Rescan servers” should help as well.

2. A simple MT4 restart might solve the problem.

If you are able to restart your MT4 platform this might solve the connection problems. Chances are that on the next MT4 launch it will be able to connect to broker server successfully.

To restart MT4 you simply need to click the X at the top-right corner of MT4 window, or go to top menu “File->Exit“.

Close MT4 platform from top-menu File->Exit

Once your MT4 is closed I recommend waiting at least 30 seconds before you open it again. This will give some time for MT4 to update all necessary files on exit. When you close MT4 it will always update log files with the most recent messages.

When you run MT4 again it might run an update and restart without any prompt, so don’t get surprised if this happens. It’s a good thing. MetaQuotes are constantly improving their software.

If for some reason you do not want to update your MT4 platform, I wrote an article on how to prevent MT4 from updating itself.

3. Try to Login to Trading Account again.

The third thing you can do is try to re-login to your trading account. Simply go to “File -> Login to Trade Account” in the top menu and then click OK when login window appears. Login, Password, and Server should already be filled in if you were logged in successfully last time. However, if any of the login information is missing you will have to fill it in. This short blog post on how to find your MT4 login and password might help you.

MT4 trading terminal login window

Even if you find login information already filled in for you, I recommend you to double check if it’s correct, especially if re-login does not help in first attempt.

Simply check if you have the right login number and server selected. As about the password, it is not visible, so I just recommend to copy/paste it again.

Here are a few tips when you copy/paste a password.

  • When you copy password or any other information from some text file or email, always make sure there is no extra space or other characters at the beginning or end of the password. Because you do not actually see what you paste in the password field, because it is hidden, I recommend you to open Notepad (or some other text editor) and paste in the password just to check if it’s clean.
  • Before you paste in a new password, I recommend you to clear the password input box. This helps you avoid confusion and actually know that you enter the newly copied password.
  • Make sure the password is actually copied in memory. There were times when my computer did not copy anything new into memory. It just kept holding some older text I copied an hour ago. Not sure what was the reason, but keep in mind that if you copy something into memory, it might be that it was not copied. And then when you paste the text into hidden password field you won’t even notice that it’s not the password, but some old text from memory.

4. Try to login using another server.

Many brokers have more than one trading server to connect to and it could be that you’ve tried to connect to a wrong server. In that case, you might usually see “Invalid Account” message in the bottom-right corner, but still, even if you see “No Connection” message, it’s worth checking if you are connecting to the right server.

First, make sure you know exactly what server to connect to. This information is usually provided by your broker after you register an account with them.

When you open “File -> Login to Trading Account” window you will be able to choose broker server. Find the server you need to connect to and select it.

MT4 login window with multiple broker server choices

In the picture above we see login window of the OANDA MT4 platform. There are 5 servers to choose from and obviously, if I choose a wrong server I won’t be logged into my MT4 account.

If you do not remember which server to use exactly, you should look for an email from your broker with the login information. If this does not help you might try to look at the “Mailbox” tab at the bottom of your MT4 platform.

MT4 Mailbox tab at the bottom

Specifically, you should be looking for a message with a headline like “Account Registration” of something similar, like in the image above.

Such message is not always available on MT4, but there were countless of times when this helped me to find my MT4 account login details fast.

Also, Mailbox on MT4 might have other important messages from you broker, like that message with a headline “Demo-Server new IP address”. This notified me that this particular Forex broker change their demo server IP address and I must re-login.

Checking messages daily will help you stay updated about things like that.

5. Disable your Anti-Virus, Firewall or Internet security software.

Maybe you’ve installed any new software on your computer or VPS server recently? Programs like Anti-Virus, Firewall and Internet security might be blocking your Internet connection (or just some of it).

I’ve seen this problem many times. People install some new firewall software to protect their computer from Internet attacks and in the result, they block any outgoing connections for anything else except their web-browser.

When you see web pages loading fine in your browser obviously you’ll assume that Internet connection is working fine, while applications like MetaTrader is actually blocked from the Internet and cannot connect to your broker server.

The same can happen with Anti-Virus software or any other software which is built to protect your computer from various Internet threats. Yes, I do agree that security comes first, but make sure you understand what you are doing and configure such software properly.

If you feel that Internet connection might be blocked, then try to disable your Anti-Virus or Firewall software (at least temporary). If this helps and you get your Internet connection back, then you should spend more time learning how to configure your security software properly.


Join Your Professional Association

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Plastics processors helping an old bomber take flight

Urbana, Ohio &mdash Here's a story that dates back more than a decade and has years to go before being finished.

A story that involves lots of metal, but plastics play a central role.

A story about how one family, and then hundreds of volunteers, have come together to support an effort to keep a part of American &mdash and world &mdash history alive.

Dave Shiffer is the kind of guy who will quickly brush aside any credit for the ongoing B-17 bomber restoration project taking place in Urbana. He makes it clear that this effort is beyond both him and his family.

But the truth is his family, which owns plastics processor Tech II Inc., has been central to the project from the beginning.

It was the Shiffer family that committed to buying B-17 parts in 2005 to serve as the basis for the project.

And Shiffer, today, serves as executive director of the Champaign Aviation Museum at Grimes Field Airport, where the project is housed.

That's where tens of thousands of hours have been logged by more than 300 volunteers over the years who are interested in seeing the plane dubbed the Champaign Lady someday take to the skies.

"It's such an iconic airplane, famous from World War II, that people want to volunteer to get them flying. We thought if we could get a few volunteers. That was the plan," Shiffer remembered.

Also known at the Flying Fortress, the B-17 helped defeat Germany by making daylight bombing runs from England. And one day, the plane will fly the skies of Urbana.

This story of how such a restoration project ended up in a tiny Ohio town, like all other stories, has a beginning. And it's tragic.

It was Shiffer's father who originally got the call about taking on the airplane project. Jerry Shiffer had enjoyed being able to ride in a restored B-17 that had flown into Urbana in 2005. Aviation is important to the family, and Jerry often ​ would use his own private plane to make customer calls for Tech II.

A crew member of that working B-17 later contacted Jerry Shiffer with a proposal. He had another B-17 project looking for a home.

"As a family, we decided to purchase the project and we thought this would be a good project communitywide," Dave Shiffer remembered.

"In 2005, the family, including my dad, committed to buying the project and getting it started. When pieces were just starting to arrive at the Grimes Field Airport, he was on a flight, he was the pilot, and crashed and died on the very day the first B-17 pieces were coming here," Shiffer said.

"We spent that night with no knowledge of his whereabouts. His airplane hadn't arrived at its destination," he said. "The next morning, they found the airplane crashed."

The death of Jerry Shiffer put the family at a crossroads, not only for the airplane project, but for the plastics business as well.

"At Tech II, my dad was the entrepreneur that started the darn thing. So we had two discussions: What do we do with the company and what do we do with the B-17 project," Shiffer said.

The answer, for both, was to keep going.

"We're starting this project basically from scratch. We got in some pieces that needed to be rebuilt from five different serial numbered airplanes. The project started in January 2006, so we've been going for over 10 years now. We will have it completed in the next six or seven years, hopefully. This is a flying project. We are building this to fly," Shiffer said.


'Mac' and 'Art' working on a B-17 Wing Panel - History

>I got to see how my finances are

not sure if you got 75k for a camera package?

Turkmenistan cycling team training to win following new study showing optimal efficiency is at a cadence of 0rpm

someone tell the dictator to get those knees in

Official Question Thread! Ask /r/photography anything you want to know about photography or cameras! Don't be shy! Newbies welcome!

Can I realistically start a semi-professional portrait photography business with a mirrorless camera? Is there a stigma to not showing up with a big clunky DSLR? For some back reference, I’ve been a hobbyist for the past 7 years, I’ve had 3 mid-line DSLR cameras and recently decided to go with a lighter mirrorless because I can more easily carry it with me.

This isn’t really a question about proficiency or ability, I’m just worried that in my current market my gear would make me look like a novice.

Easily. I know several commercial photographers who have been shooting mirrorless sony cameras for years

Recall Effort Against San Francisco DA Chesa Boudin Moves Forward

Out of millions? The horror.

do you think millions of people live in SF?

2 seniors cling to life after being attacked in SF incidents

You're right but typically elderly, women and children are spared by most street criminals as it's seen as dishonorable to prey on those who cannot most likely defend themselves. The past few years have showed that these desperate thugs don't care, anyone is a target.

seems to be trending in the other direction: those groups are being actively targeted


AZ Attorney

Just days before the celebration of the Martin Luther King, Jr., holiday, a local group is honoring some men who broke down their own barriers.

Tomorrow in Mesa, the Tuskegee Airmen will be recognized for their remarkable accomplishments. The Commemorative Air Force Arizona Wing will take the time to praise at least six of those who still survive.

“In spite of adversity and limited opportunities, African Americans have played a significant role in U.S. military history over the past 300 years. They were denied military leadership roles and skilled training because many believed they lacked qualifications for combat duty. Before 1940, African Americans were barred from flying for the U.S. military. Civil rights organizations and the black press exerted pressure that resulted in the formation of an all African-American pursuit squadron based in Tuskegee, Alabama, in 1941. They became known as the Tuskegee Airmen.”

As a news story explains, the Saturday event at Falcon Field in Mesa “will include an overview of the history of the Tuskegee Airmen, a group that included 450 pilots and more than 14,000 members of air crews and ground-support units, as well as doctors, nurses and other personnel in the then-segregated U.S. Army Air Corps.”

Also featured will be a documentary, narrated by Cuba Gooding, Jr., titled “Double Victory.” It was made to accompany the January 20 release of the George Lucas film “Red Tails,” which celebrates the Airmen and their contributions.

Members of the Tuskegee Airmen relax during World War II. Arizona members of the group will be honored Saturday (Jan. 14) at a tribute in Mesa.

Lawyer Herb Zinn has been involved with the Commemorative Air Force Arizona Wing Aviation Museum for years, and he was quoted in the news story.

“When ‘Red Tails’ was announced, we thought it would be a moment for us to celebrate these guys in a compelling setting,” said Herb Zinn of the museum, which has a working B-17 bomber and working P-51 Mustang cq fighters like those featured in the film. “These guys were giants, by what they did, aside from their bravery in combat.”

As Zinn explains, the Airmen’s contributions helped pave the way for desegregation, in the military and the nation as a whole.

And for some interesting stories about George Lucas and the (difficulty of) making “Red Tails,” click here and here.

Have a great weekend. I’ll be back Tuesday, after the MLK Holiday.


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100 + Sociology Objective Type Questions and Answers

List of 100+ sociology objective type questions and answers. This will help you to learn about sociology objective type questions and answers which is more likely to be asked in UPSC, UGC-NET, IAS, Civil Services, eligibility tests and other competitive examinations!

1. The term ‘sociology’ was coined by

2. In which year the term ‘Sociology’ was coined?

3. French Revolution took place in the year

4. Sociology emerged in

5. The word ‘Sociology’ is made up of two words. These are-

6. Society emerges out of

7. Society symbolises the network of

8. ‘Society is the web of social relationships’ whose definition is this?

9. There are two types of definition of society. These are-

(a) Structural and interactional

(b) Functional and structural

(c) Evolutionary and diffusive

(d) Structural and evolutionary

(a) important and universal social institution of society

(b) important basis for group formation

(c) helpful in strengthening the caste system

(d) helpful in calming down the anger of two conflicting groups.

12. In the Industrialised western societies, the chief aim of marriage is not only procreation but

(b) emotional and psychological support and companionship

(c) emotional and psychological support

13. Marriage is considered to be necessary because

(a) This is the only way to acquire paternal property

(b) This is the only way of sexual gratification

(c) This provides societal sanction

(d) It is regularised and provides socially sanctioned sex gratification

14. In his book ‘People of India’ who said ‘that probably there has existed in man a tendency to vary. This desire must have driven men to seek marital alliance with strangers, unfamiliar and unknown to him’.

15. Risley have given this statement put in question No. 4 to support his views on _______, regarding marriage.

(c) Preference and prohibition

16. Who among the following was on the opinion that” A gift is a social substitute for money among moneyless cultures.”?

17. The importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development has been insisted by

18. Whose statement is this?

“Jajmani relationships is the means by which the rich and powerful exploit the poor and coerce the workers into sustaining the power of those who have the upper hand and the higher rank.”

19. Kula exchange is associated with

20. The basis of slave system is always?

21. Which of the following factors does not contribute to the growth of traditional societies?

(a) Community and associational life is kept loose without any prescribed basis of social existence

(b) Perpetuation of tribal and caste affiliation

(c) Perpetuation of kinship and clanship

(d) Continuation of agriculture as the dominant activity.

22. Which of the following statements is correct?

(a) The percentage of the world’s population that live in cities is indeed very large

(b) Most of the world has been urban most of the time.

(c) Most of the world has been rural most of the time.

(d) India is a highly urban country

23. A characteristic feature of a rural community is

(d) A vast number of association

24. Who among the following was the first to distinguish between the state and the government?

25. ‘The state originates and continues to exist for the sake of the best life’. Whose opinion is this?

26. Who among the following is associated with authority?

27. The three-tier system of Panchayati Raj was recommended by

(c) Balwant Rai Mehta Committee

(d) Jai Prakash Narain Committee

28. Functional theory of stratification propounded by

29. Who among the following has emphasized upon the functional aspects of stratification?

(d) Lenski, C.W. Mills, Parsons

30. The society has passed through the three stages of its development-theological, metaphysical and the positive. This view was held by

31. A social movement depends on

32. Whose definition is this?

‘Tribe is an indigenous unit speaking a common language, claiming a common descent, living in a particular geographical area, backward in technology, pre-literate, loyally observing social and political customs based on kinship.’

(a) A conference at Shillong in 1962

(b) Earth Summit at Rio in 1992

(d) Indigenous People Conference, Sav Paulo 1937

33. Practice of welcoming guests, by spitting on their body is practiced by

34. Demographers do not take into account

(a) Age, sex and racial composition of the population

(b) Height and weight of the population

35. What is meant by sex-ratio?

(a)The relation between male and female

(b) The ratio between the number of adult male and adult females in a population

(c)The ratio between number of female and number of male in a population

(d) The number of females per 1000 males in a population

36. The scheduled castes in India provide an example of a

37. Who gave the name ‘Harijans’ to the untouchables?

38. According to whom the ‘self’ develops in a social context and is nurtured by primary groups?

39. Who viewed corporate group in relation to authority and termed it as Verband?

40. The value which cannot be determined graphically is:

41. The most frequent item of the series around which other items are densely populated is known as:

42. What is the theoretical framework that fo­cuses on the level of economic development as the determinant of birth and death rates, referred to as?

(A) Malthusian Theory of population

(B) Optimum Theory of population

(C) Demographic Transition Theory

(D) Theory of social capillarity

43. Which of the following determine India’s fertility rate?

1. Religious importance of the male child.

2. Social security value of children

3. Economic value of children

4. Intrinsic value of children

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

44. Which one of the following is the first stage of the evolution of an institution?

45. Identify the particular element that domi­nates in the material culture:

46. Which among the following is the indicator of open stratification system?

47. Who among the following authors initially used the term ‘social physics’ for Sociology?

48. An author thought of ‘society to be consist­ing in the consciousness of kind’. Identify from among the following:

49. Which of the following best describes sociology as a subject?

(a) The study of individual behavior

(c) The study of society and social interaction

50. C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how society affects individuals.

51. A sociologist defines society as a group of people who reside in a defined area, share a culture, and who:

(b) work in the same industry

(c) speak different languages

(d) practice a recognized religion

52. Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to:

(a) compare the behavior of individuals from different societies

(b) compare one society to another

(c) identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure

(d) compare individuals to groups

53. Which of the following was a topic of study in early sociology?

54. Sociology has been derived from the Latin word ‘Societus’ and ‘logos’, which means:

(a) Friend or companion and science

(c) Sociability and science

55. It was as the founder of “Positive” movement that- achieved recognition as a philosopher, and although modem sociologists do not consider his theories as anything other than a series of interesting speculations, they recognize that he was responsible for demonstrating the need for an objective systematic study of society.

56. Modem sociological thought and theory, as distinct from the purely contemplative or philosophical analysis of society, emerged in the:

(c) Late 18th century and early 19th century

57. Relationship central to sociology are those which involve:

(c) Mutual recognition and the sense of something shared in common

58. Underlying seemingly unconnected, contradictory, chaotic happenings, there are patterns and regularities. It is the focus of a sociologist to:

(c) Make them perfectly regular and patterned

(d) Study the best patterns

59. One important advantage of socialisation is that it takes one:

(c) Member of political system

(d) Realise the importance of wealth

60. ‘Group Mind’ was written by:

61. Differences can be those of:

62. In society differences are always:

(d) Both adopted and natural

63. Who of the following had defined society as union in itself?

64. Force theory about origin of society is not accepted because it is believed that:

(a) It is not historically correct

(c) It creates feat in the minds of the people

(d) It is by now clear that state is expansion of families

65. According to_________, self and society are not identical.

66. Socialism is a _____ not a process.

(c) biological specialization

67. In society differences grow due to:

68. Force theory about origin of society makes us believes that:

(a) Society was given by God

(b) Force brought society into existence

(c) Force has nothing to do with the emergence of society

(d) Force has no relevance with the coming of society

69. In India, the institution of family has a trend towards:

70. These days in India the institution of marriage is weakening because:

(a) Our religious leaders are becoming rigid

(b) women are becoming economically sell-sufficient

(c) less number of people are liking to marry

(d) people prefer small size family

71. Who among the following does not fall under the category of community?

(c) The people of U.S. origin

72. Which one of the following is not correct about institutional structure?

(a) There is rule to codify its working

(b) There are no codified rules of its working

(c) There are symbols which synthesize relationship

(d) It is bound with the others

73. Industry is institutional structure of an institution which by nature is:

74. Pick up one which is not true of an institution:

(a) It is least concerned with customs and mores

(b) Customs and mores are its distinguishing feature

(c) It meets primary needs of the people

75. Which of the following is not the characteristic of an institution?

(a) It must follow some well-established rules

(b) Its strength is based on obedience to rules

(c) These grow with the society

(d) These have no definite objectives

76. Who of the following has defined institution by saying that, “Institution is definite organisation pursuing some specific interest in a specific way”?

77. Who of the following has said that “A social institution is a functional configuration of culture pattern”?

78. “Social institutions are sets of organised human relationships established by common will” was said by:

79. Which among the following constitutes a group?

(a) Vegetables sellers following one another into a lane.

(b) Members of a circus company engaged in performance.

(c) Children running out of the school after it is closed for the day.

(d) Partnership that has failed.

80. Indicate which of the following a group?

(a) Some members of Bar Association discussing matters concerning their Association.

(b) Some surgeons discussing an important subject of surgery.

(c) An executive body of a trade union.

(d) A horse-man, a cyclist, and a pedestrian going along the road.

81. Member of a small trade union is:

82. Which of the following is not a characteristic of social group?

(a) Its members are conscious of shared membership.

(b) Its members accept certain rights and obligations.

(c) Its members are a casual collection of people

(d) Its members have a distinctive set of interpersonal relations.

83. George Simmel’s classification of group as monad, dyad, triad etc. is based on:

84. Who among the following introduced the concept of ‘imaginary reference group’?

85. Who among the following have applied reference group theory in understanding sanskritization process in India’?

86. Mark out the primary group among the following:

(a) Members of a trade union

87. Which among the following are reference groups?

88. Which among the following is not a secondary group?

(d) Students in a class room

89. Which among the following do not constitute the reference group?

(b) Nov Ratans in the Court of Vikramaditya

(c) Urchins on the road side

(d) Members of the United Nations

90. Which among the following is secondary group’?

(a) Nurses attending upon patient

(b) Production efficiency council in a factory

91. According to Tonnies, neighbourhood is types of_____________.

92. Find out the incorrect match-

(a) Horizontal group – craft union

(b) Spatial groups – corporation

(c) Secondary group – corporation

(d) Primary group – political party

93. Striving for admission is a ___________ behaviour.

94. Which among the following is institutionalized and involves the right to take certain actions including decisions to issue commands?

95. According to Weber, the three types of leadership are:

(a) rational, feudal and capitalistic

(b) feudal, traditional and charismatic

(c) legal, traditional and charismatic

96. Social structure is a/an-

(b) integration of ultimate values

97. According to Parsons, society is a system having four basic functional prior conditions, they are-

(a) adaptation, goal-orientation, integration and pattern maintenance

(b) education, socialization, social control and religion

(c) economic institutions, political institutions ideology and kinship

98. When universalism is combined with achievement values, the result is a social structure of-

(a) universalistic-achievement pattern

(b) particularistic-ascription pattern

(c) universalistic-ascription pattern

(d) particularistic-achievement pattern

99. According to Weber the groups which are specifically concerned with influencing policies and making decisions in the interests of their membership are called_____________.

100. According to H.M. Johnson, which one stands important for integration and pattern maintenance?

101. According to Weber, which are stems from an individual’s emotional stage at a particular time?

102. With whose name will you associate the ‘Voluntaristic theory of Action’?

103. Sociology is the interpretive understanding of social action. This definition was brought by-

(a) the conducts which incorporate value-judgments

(b) the standardized generalisations

(c) the conducts which are the guidelines of the expected behaviour

(d) not pattern setting limits or the behaviour of an individual

105. Which of the following statements gives correct explanation of norms:

(a) norms are those standards of group behaviour which the members must follow

(b) norms are those standards which are obeyed to bring diffusion among the individuals

(c) norms are certain rules which are adopted to keep the individuals away from any kind of interaction

(d) norms act against the modes of behaviour of the individuals

(b) a culturally shared definition of desirable behaviour

(c) behaviour desired by majority of the individuals

107. Social norms refer to:

(b) the most frequently observed behaviour in a society

(c) right type of behaviour

(d) those standards or rules which specify appropriate and inappropriate behaviour

108. Which among the following has influenced man’s faith and belief most?

(d) levels of culture achieved

(c) the expanding experience

109. Institutional belief system:

(a) cannot at all be changed

(d) can be changed only when few powerful in the society like that

110. Institutional belief system is one which is:

(a) adopted by only one institution

(b) adopted by few institution

(c) adopted by a particular Society

(d) discarded by all institution

111. Belief system in every religious system:

(a) has some symbolic expressions

(b) has nothing to do with symbols

(c) adopts symbols when necessary

(d) discards symbols at will

112. Which one of the following cannot be the cause of frustration in the belief system?

(a) untimely death of a relation

(c) failure in meeting a group of friends

(d) more reward for less work

113. In religious belief system which one of the following is not true about Muslim system:

(a) it believes in one supreme God

(b) it believes in the theory of held and heaven

(c) it believes in truth and falsehood

(d) it believes in transmigration of soul

114. _____ is spontaneous, _____ is artificial.

115. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of deviant behaviour?

(a) It disturbs social equilibrium

(b) It contravenes social norms

(c) It is a departure from usual mode of behaviour

(d) It is a departure from newly developed set of behaviour

116. Public opinion as a means of social control is-

(b) An uncertain sanction, since no one can be sure of its unified stand

(c) Useless since nobody is ready to follow it

(d) Has no relation with social control

117. It is believed that conformity with the customs is-

(b) An indifferently imposed process

(c) An artificial process in the sense that people follow customs to showoff

(d) With some conceivable amount of deviation.

118. Customs are those sanctions-

(a) Which are relegated by a single authority

(b) Which are regulated by the eldest person in the group

(c) Which are simply accepted by the members of the society

(d) Which are regulated by law

119. Which of the following cannot be called as the deviant individuals?

120. Which of the following statements is correct?

(a) Deviance is in contradiction to social norms

(b) Deviance is the negation of the social behaviour and decency

(c) Deviance means the performance of activities which are not approved by the society

121. Deviant behaviour-

(a) Brings the disintegrating forces in equilibrium

(b) Disturbs the equilibrium in the social life of the people

(c) Acts in contradiction to deviance

(d) Means the behaviour which is shown by diligent individuals

122. “The tendency on the part of one or more of the component factors to behave in such a way as to disturb the equilibrium of interactive process”, is the definition given by-

123. “A motivated tendency of an actor to behave in contravention of one or more institutionalised normative patterns” is a definition of-

124. Freud’s ‘Id’ can best be translated as____________.

125. According to Cooley, the concept of____________ refers to an individual perception of self as determined by the way one imagines one appears to others or as others perceive us______.

126. Which among the following is true of socialization?

(a) It socializes the individuals

(b) It makes society above individual

(c) It brings individuals into the social

127. Whose name is associated with the process of Socialization?

128. Which is true of socialization?

(a) It highlights values & manners within individuals.

(b) Socialisation includes both learning of new things and unlearning of maladaptive behaviours

(c) Socialization is both intentional and unintentional

129. Who among the following has brought the concept of ID, Ego and Superego?

130. The concept of T and ‘Me’ is attributed the name of-

131. Who has tabled the process of socialization through the process of playing at a role?

132. Whose name is associated with concept of significant others?

133. Whose name associated with the concept of generalized other?

134. Which among the following involves secondary cooperation?

(b) Countries which joined to defeat Hitler in the Second World War

(c) The referee, players and spectators on the play ground

135. Which among the following does not involve secondary cooperation?

(d) Teacher-student relations

136. Which among the following involves secondary cooperation?

137. Which among the following is based on direct cooperation?

138. In which of the following the principle of cooperation is not involved?

(d) A intending to organise opposition against the cricket club

139. Which one of the following is NOT the advantage of Polygamy?

(a) in it, it is possible to have healthy children

(b) in it the chances of sex corruption are reduced

(c) in it the fragmentation of property is saved

(d) in it there is harmony in the family

140. In adelphic polyandry form of marriage the children are treated as the offspring of the-

141. According to Morgan, which of the following is the correct order of evolution of family?

(a) Monogamian family, consanguine family, punaluan family, syndasmian family and patriarchal family

(b) Punaluan family, syndyasmian family, consanguineal family, patriarchal family and monogamian family

(c) Consanguine family, punaluan family, syndayasmian family, patriarchal family and monogamian family

142. The marriage relations in the matriarchal type of family are-

(c) of double coincidence in nature

(d) similar to that of the patriarchal society

143. Primitive societies are characterised more by___________ terms in kinship.

144. The descendants of common male ancestor are called__________.

145. “One is not born but rather becomes a woman”. Who said this?

146. One of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in India is:

(b) Carelessness of doctors

147. Marx believed that western society had developed through the following main epochs. They are –

(a) primitive communism, ancient society, feudal society and capitalist society

(b) savagery, feudalism and capitalism

(c) slavery, barbarism and feudalism

(d) feudalism, capitalism and’ socialism

148. Who first introduced the concept of alienation into sociological theory?

149. In which of the following is there a reciprocal relationship and interaction among men and groups within a cultural framework?

150. Weber has identified various types of action which are distinguished by the meanings on which they are based. They are-

(a) affective, emotional, and rational action

(b) emotional, traditional and rational action

(c) traditional, legal and charismatic action

151. Division of labour into occupations is called ____________.

(a) social division of labour

(b) occupational division of labour

(c) technical division of labour

(d) territorial division of labour

152. Division of labour within a particular enterprise is called-

(a) social division of labour

(b) technical division of labour

(c) occupation division of labour

(d) territorial division of labour

153. In large cities, the neighbourhood is largely a group ______ of characterised chiefly by the fact that the members reside within a geographical area.

154. A scientific distinction between the urban and the rural community can be made on the basis of-

(c) occupation followed by the people

155. Dependency groups are____________

(a) 14 years and younger and 65 years and above

(b) 16 years and below and 60 years and above

(c) 18 years and younger and 60 years

156. Natural increase of population means___________

(a) the net difference between births and deaths

(c) the difference between migration and immigration

(d) the difference between birth rate and mortality rate

157. Rights which are given to the citizens by the constitution but which cannot be touched by the state are known as

158. Whereas for Marx history ultimately leads to, and ends with the communist Utopia for Pareto history is a never ending

(c) process of producing lion elites

(d) process of producing fox elites

159. Which Article of the constitution deals with specifying a particular tribe as a scheduled tribe?

160. Article________ provides for a commissioner for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes


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